2016: Vienna, Austria

Keynote Speakers

Professor A D Redmond OBE
A.D. Redmond

WEDNESDAY, 3 OCTOBER 2012 18:30 - 20:30 ROOM Istanbul I
PLENARY SESSION WELCOME CEREMONY - HERMAN DELOOZ LECTURE
       

From Emergency Medicine to Disaster Medicine

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Maaret Castrén

Maaret CastrenTHURSDAY, 4 OCTOBER 2012 10:40 - 11:30 Room Istanbul 1
PLENARY SESSION 

 

History of Life Support Care in Europe

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PROFESSOR Guillaume Alinier

Guillaume AlinierFRIDAY, 5 OCTOBER 2012 10:40 - 11:30 Room Istanbul 1
PLENARY SESSION

Simulation is becoming a reality! An overview of high level initiatives from around the world

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Pre-Courses

Survival Course Critical Emergency Skills for Young Doctors

1 day

The "Survival Course Critical Emergency Skills for Young Doctors" (SUCCESS) is based on a very simple concept - hands-on-training of critical skills needed for prehospital emergency doctors, in the emergency department, on ICU or even on the ward. The central theme of this full-day-course are the „4 Hs and 4Ts“ in Advanced Life Support.

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non-invasive ventilation

One of the major advances in acute respiratory failure treatment is Non Invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation (NPPV). The application of non-invasive positive pressure has been proved superior to standard treatment and should belong to the therapeutic armamentarium of the emergency physician.

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Ultrasound - Beginner

2 days

This is a course applicable to all from the very beginner to those with some experience. It is an opportunity to learn and develop basic skills with an internationally renowned faculty.

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Ultrasound - Advanced

1 day

The Major aim is to developing a clear US approach to critical illness
Advanced sessions to develop your US practice from head to toe led by international experts.
Interactive sessions to integrate US effectively in to resuscitation
Planning your future training

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Advanced Paediatric Emergency Care (APEC)

2 days

The APEC course has been developed and is conducted by the Paediatric Section of EuSEM. The course has been designed and targeted for PEM Physicians, Paediatricians, and Emergency Physicians who provide care for children in emergencies and who want to enhance their knowledge and skills in Paediatric Emergency Medicine (PED).  

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disaster medicine

1 day

The aim of this course is to address all these issues and enable colleagues whom are not familiar with this type of clinical practice, to feel more confident in managing mass shooting multiple casualties. Experienced speakers from the military combined with Civil EMS will help us understand where to focus to improve their response capability in prehospital and hospital settings.

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Acute Pain Management

1 day

The first edition of the Acute Pain Management course will cover the main topics regarding a correct and effective analgesia in the emergency setting: we’ll move from a crucial “dogmalysis”, criticizing habits and myths about pain, and discuss the relationship between acute pain and the practice of Emergency Medicine, between acute and chronic pain, between analgesia and outcome.

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The 12-Lead ECG and Acute Myocardial Infarction

2 days

The content will include didactic as well as audio-visual presentations. In keeping with my company’s philosophy of active participation by those in attendance, there will be actual ECGs that the participants themselves will take turns interpreting during the class while I assist and guide them. 

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Airway Workshop

2 days

Airway Management is a major topic in the Emergency Department. Anesthesiologists are not always available; therefore each member of the ED needs to be able to perform Airway Management. To secure the airway of a patient, it is necessary to know the different devices and techniques and also to consider, that the algorithm is different to the familiar pre-hospital and OR airway algorithm.

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The European Course on Geriatric Emergency Medicine (ECGEM)

2 days

This course is organized in collaboration between EuSEM and the European Union of Geriatric Medicine Society. The program of the course will follow the European Curriculum on GEM. 

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Programme overview

Sunday 02 October
Time Room A-FESTSAAL Room B-ZEREMONIENSAAL Room C-PRINZ EUGEN SAAL Room D-FORUM Room E-GEHEIME RATSTUBE Room F-RITTERSAAL Room G-GARTENSAAL Room OP-SCHATZKAMMERSAAL
13:00
13:00-14:30
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A11
State of the Art
Trauma

State of the Art
Trauma

Moderators: Al BEHCET (faculty speaker) (Gaziantep, TURKEY), Jason SMITH (PHYSICIAN) (Plymouth, UK)
13:00 - 13:30 Blast injuries - military lessons for civilian practice. Jason SMITH (PHYSICIAN) (Plymouth, UK)
13:30 - 14:00 How we use tranexamic acid for major traumatic haemorrhage in 2016. John HOLCOMB (USA)
14:00 - 14:30 Injuries of War: Management of severe trauma and mass casualties by the Canadian Forces in Afghanistan. Damian MACDONALD (CANADA)
13:00-14:30
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B11
Austria, Germany, Switzerland Invites
EuSEM hosts ÖNK - Qualitätsmanagement Notfallmedizin

Austria, Germany, Switzerland Invites
EuSEM hosts ÖNK - Qualitätsmanagement Notfallmedizin

Moderators: Michael BAUBIN (AUSTRIA), Peter STRATIL (VIENNA, AUSTRIA)
13:00 - 13:30 QM im Rettungsdienst. Hartwig MARUNG (Oberarzt) (Kiel, GERMANY)
13:30 - 14:00 QM im Notarztsystem am Beispiel Bayern. Michael BAYEFF-FILLHOFF (GERMANY)
14:00 - 14:30 QM im Notarztsystem am Beispiel Tirol. Michael BAUBIN (AUSTRIA)
13:00-14:30
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C11
Philosophy & Controversies
P&C Education

Philosophy & Controversies
P&C Education

Moderators: Eric DRYVER (Consultant) (Lund, SWEDEN), Cornelia HAERTEL (Stockholm, SWEDEN)
13:00 - 13:30 Guidelines in EM. Sigrid HAHN (New York, USA)
13:30 - 14:00 FOAM: "Hear me Now" - A Beginners' Guide to Podcasting for Medical Education. Iain BEARDSELL (UK)
14:00 - 14:30 DGINA Blog and other educational activities in German Emergency Medicine. Michael CHRIST (Director) (Lucerne, SWITZERLAND)
13:00-14:30
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D11
Administration management
Cost Effectiveness

Administration management
Cost Effectiveness

Moderators: Said HACHIMI IDRISSI (head clinic) (Ghent, BELGIUM), Christoph RASCHE (GERMANY)
13:00 - 13:30 Clinical use and health economic benefits of S100ß in the management of adults with mTBI. Said HACHIMI IDRISSI (head clinic) (Ghent, BELGIUM)
13:30 - 14:00 Early goal directed therapy in sepsis: worth the money? Richard GRIEVE (UK)
14:00 - 14:30 Treat first, what kills first: Economic constraint and priority management in Eds. Thomas BENTER (GERMANY)
13:00-14:30
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E11
Research
Pulmonary

Research
Pulmonary

Moderators: Erden Erol UNLUER (TURKEY), Christoph WEISER (VIENNA, AUSTRIA)
13:00 - 13:30 Hot articles for pulmonary emergencies. Erden Erol UNLUER (TURKEY)
13:30 - 14:00 Ventilation in the near future. Abdo KHOURY (PH) (Besançon, FRANCE)
14:00 - 14:30 The future of non invasive ventilation in the ER. Roberto COSENTINI (Milano, ITALY)
13:00-14:30
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F11
YEMD
FOAM Europe

YEMD
FOAM Europe

Moderators: Simon CARLEY (Manchester, UK), Martin FANDLER (Doctor) (Nuremberg, GERMANY)
13:00 - 13:30 FOAM, the big leagues. Simon CARLEY (Manchester, UK)
13:30 - 14:00 New kid on the block. Kostja STEINER (Nuremberg, GERMANY)
14:00 - 14:30 Medical education before, with and after FOAM. Martin FANDLER (Doctor) (Nuremberg, GERMANY)
 
13:00-14:30
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OP11
Oral Papers 11

Oral Papers 11

Moderators: Hani HARIRI (Riyadh, SAUDI ARABIA), Cyril NOEL (Londres, UK)
13:00 - 13:10 #7249 - OP001 Can we differentiate hives, angioneurotic edema and anaphylaxis using serum erythropoietin levels?
Can we differentiate hives, angioneurotic edema and anaphylaxis using serum erythropoietin levels?

Background

Erythropoietin (EPO), a renal type I cytokine, plays key role in the regulation of erythropoiesis. EPO is also increased at the area of inflammation in addition to erythropoiesis and hypoxia showing an anti-inflammatory mechanism. EPO decreases releasing of proinflammatory factors such as TNFα, IL-6, IL-12/IL-23, reduce production of NO by inhibiting inducible NO synthase (iNOS), shows anti-inflammatory effect by reducing NF-κB dependent immunocytokines production, inhibits reactive oxygen species at neutrophils and changes activity of T cells indirectly by disruption of antigen presentation or affecting signal transmission of antigen presenting cells. EPO shows non-erythropoietic functions such as immunoregulatory effect in autoimmune diseases and tissue protective effect in trauma and ischemia.

Aim

We aimed that whether there is a significant difference between erythropoietin (EPO) levels in patients who were administrated to emergency department with urticaria, angioedema and anaphylaxis or not.

Method

Our study was conducted prospectively in ED during two years. Exclusion criteria: Patients who refused to participate, with previously known anemia, renal failure, liver disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, any disease affecting bone marrow, and malignancies. Patients were classified as urticaria (just skin lesions), angioedema (skin and/or mucosa signs) and anaphylaxis (according to international anaphylaxis criteria). Blood levels of white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil (NEU), lymphocyte (LEN), eosynophil (EO), basophil (BAS), red blood cell (RBC), haemoglobine, haematocrit (HTC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MHC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), red cell distribution width (RDW), platelet, platelet distribution width (PDW), creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were evaluated. Parameters related to erythropoietin as HTC/EPO, RDW/EPO, WBC/EPO, NEU/EPO, LEN/EPO, RBC/EPO, PLT/EPO, EO/EPO, BAS/EPO were calculated and compared.

Results

156 patients grouped as urticaria (n=62, 41.7%), angioedema (n=56, 35.9%), anaphylaxis (n=38, 24.4%) were included. Of 38 anaphylaxis patients, 65.8% had rash, 50% had itching, 13.2% had facial edema, 21.1% had periorbital edema, 34.2% had perioral edema, 18.4% had tongue edema, 84.2% had shortness of breath. There was no significant difference, in terms of erythropoietin and related parameters among urticaria (6.2±1.7 mlU/ml), angioedema (6.2±1.7 mlU/ml) and anaphylaxis (6.4±1.7 mlU/ml) patients (p=0.799). Erythropoietin levels were significantly higher in patients with uvula edema compared to patients without (6.0±1.7 vs. 6.5±1.6; p=0.027). HTC/EPO and RDW/EPO ratios were lower in patients who had rash than patients who had not (8.0±1.9 vs. 7.1±2.3; p=0.033 and 2.7±0.9 vs. 2.2±0.6, respectively; p=0.013). 

Discussion

EpoR expression in non-hematopoietic tissues is shown in previous studies. A study conducted on cutaneous mast cells of subjects with or without dermatologic diseases showed the presence of soluble EpoR in secretory granules. Other immune cells such as macrophages also can release EPO which activate mast cells in paracrine way to express EpoR. Considering the paracrine effect on mast cells, the tissue level of EPO may be high before blood levels elevated. The relationship of mast cells in different tissues and difference between tissue and blood levels of EPO need further studies.

Conclusion

Urticaria, angioedema, anaphylaxis cannot be differentiated via using levels of erythropoietin. However, uvula edema is correlated with higher erythropoietin levels.  

Fatih Mehmet SARI, Mucahit EMET (Erzurum, TURKEY), Saime OZBEK SEBIN, Haticetul Kubra SARI, Abdulkadir YILDIRIM
13:10 - 13:20 #7294 - OP002 suPAR predicts readmission and mortality in patients discharged within 24 h.
suPAR predicts readmission and mortality in patients discharged within 24 h.

Background

The critical decision of whether to discharge or admit a patient to the hospital is often made at the hospital’s acute care department. More than half of the patients that present at our acute care department are discharged within 24 h and not admitted to the specialized wards of the hospital. Still, some of these patients are subsequently readmitted or may die. Therefore, improvement of the current methods to prognosticate and assess patient risk must be improved, in order to avoid discharge of high-risk patients.

In this study, we aimed to determine whether the prognostic biomarker: soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) was able to predict readmission and mortality in patients who are discharged from the acute care department within 24 h.

 

Methods

Between 18 November 2013 and 30 September 2015 20,193 patients were admitted to the acute medical department, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre. Follow-up was carried out for 30 days via Danish national registries. suPAR measurements and registry data on diagnoses, vital status etc. were available for 17,262 patients. The Charlson score was calculated and used as a measure of comorbidity burden. Statistical analysis was carried out using Kruskal-Wallis test and multiple Cox regression analysis.

 

Results

A total of 9623 patients (4459 men and 5164 women) were discharged within 24 h. Median suPAR was 2.3 ng/ml (Interquartile range (IQR) 1.7-3.2) for patients discharged within 24 h, compared with 3.7 ng/ml (IQR 2.5-5.5, P<0.0001) for patients with in-hospital stays longer than 24 h. Median age for patients discharged within 24 h was 52.1 years (IQR 36.0-68.4) and 71.2 years (IQR 57.0-82.0, P<0.0001) for patients with longer admissions.

 

Among patients who were discharged within 24 h, 174 patients (1.8%) died and 1262 patients (13.1%) were readmitted during 30-day follow-up. In comparison, 685 patients (9.0%) died and 1639 (21.5%) were readmitted among patients with in-hospital stays longer than 24 h.

 

For patients discharged within 24 h, the median suPAR level among those who survived and were not readmitted during follow-up (n=8230) was 2.2 ng/ml (IQR 1.7-3.1). Patients who were readmitted had a slightly elevated suPAR level of 2.8 ng/ml (IQR 2.0-4.0, P<0.0001), and those who died had a median suPAR of 6.9 ng/ml (IQR 4.3-9.7, P<0.0001).

 

In multiple Cox regression analyses of log2-transformed suPAR values adjusted for age, sex, Charlson score, and C-reactive protein, the HRs for 30-day mortality and readmission were 2.90 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.25-3.75) and 1.43 (95% CI 1.33-1.53), respectively, for patients discharged within 24 h. For patients with in-hospital stays longer than 24 h, the HRs were 2.06 (95% CI 1.86-2.28, P 0.0002) for 30-day mortality and 1.21 (95% CI 1.14-1.29, P 0.01) for 30-day readmission.

 

Conclusion

Patients with short admissions (<24 h) had lower suPAR levels as well as 30-day readmission and mortality rates, however, among these patients, a high suPAR level was associated with an increased risk of readmission and mortality compared with patients with in-hospital stays longer than 24 h.

 

 

Line Jee Hartmann RASMUSSEN (Hvidovre, DENMARK), Steen LADELUND, Thomas Huneck HAUPT, Gertrude ELLEKILDE, Jørgen Hjelm POULSEN, Martin SCHULTZ, Kasper IVERSEN, Ove ANDERSEN, Jesper EUGEN-OLSEN
13:20 - 13:30 #7527 - OP003 Design: Risk stratification with suPAR in emergency medicine (Triage III).
Design: Risk stratification with suPAR in emergency medicine (Triage III).

Background: Risk stratification with systematic triage plays a pivotal role in the emergency setting, ensuring that acutely sick patients are cared for first and observed closest. Current triage algorithms serve as risk stratification tools in many emergency departments (ED) and are all based on a combination of the patients’ vital parameters and primary symptoms. Several retrospective studies have identified biomarkers that contain prognostic information, which goes beyond the current triage utilized, and these studies suggests biomarkers as supplement to triage to improve risk stratification. Identifying patients at high and low risk shortly after admission can guide clinical decision-making towards the patients in need, regarding treatment, observation, and allocation of resources. 

Whether the implementation of a prognostic biomarker in initial risk stratification of acutely admitted patients translates into better management and treatment and actually decreases mortality, morbidity, admissions or readmissions has yet to be shown.

Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a biomarker with potential use in the EDs, as several studies have found it to be an independent predictor of 30-day mortality and adverse outcomes such as readmission, admission to ICU, and longer length of stay. The suPAR blood level reflects immune activation, and it is strongly associated with presence, prognosis, and severity of a broad variety of acute and chronic diseases, as well as being a predictor of disease development in the general population. Although unspecific, suPAR might be an ideal biomarker for risk stratification of unselected patients. 

Study hypothesis: The main hypothesis is that the introduction, fast measurement, and immediate reporting of the suPAR level to the attending physicians in the EDs will enhance risk stratification and be associated with an absolute risk reduction in all-cause mortality at 10 months after inclusion by 1.5%.  The suPAR level can draw attention towards patients with an unrecognized high risk, leading to improved diagnosis and treatment.

Method: The study is designed as an open cross-over cluster-randomized interventional multicenter trial. suPAR is included in the routine blood work of all eligible patients admitted acutely during the interventional period, measured within 2 hours after admission, and immediately reported to the treating physicians in the ED. Prior to the inclusion period, these physicians are educated in the prognostic capabilities of suPAR.

Results: The inclusion period began January 11th 2016 and ends June 6th 2016.  The study aims to include 10.000 patients in both the interventional and control arm. Results regarding the primary outcome are expected to be presented in 2017. 

Conclusion: The present abstract describes the design and rationale of the TRIAGE III trial. If our hypothesis is confirmed, strong considerations should be given towards standardizing prognostic biomarkers as routine blood work in relation to early risk stratification in the ED. The TRIAGE III trial has the potential to investigate the concept: Having prognostic information can change the patients prognosis. This concept is central in triage and several other clinical situations, and the study might therefore have a central impact on future clinical organizing and decision-making.

Martin SCHULTZ (Herlev, DENMARK), Line Jee Hartmann RASMUSSEN, Jesper EUGEN-OLSEN, Andreas Højrup Sandø KRISTENSEN, Lars Simon RASMUSSEN, Lars KØBER, Erik KJØLLER, Birgitte Nybo JENSEN, Lisbet RAVN, Theis LANGE, Kasper Karmark IVERSEN
13:30 - 13:40 #7801 - OP004 Smoothing the elective surgical schedule to decrease emergency department length of stay.
Smoothing the elective surgical schedule to decrease emergency department length of stay.

Background: The demand for emergency department (ED) care and non-elective hospital admissions exhibit “natural” variability and do not vary significantly by day of the week. In contrast, the elective surgical schedule is subject to “artificial” variability and is created, in large part, for the convenience of physicians. Consequently, the majority of patients requiring elective surgical procedures are admitted on Mondays and the procedures are subsequently performed on Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays. Many of these patients occupy a hospital bed post-operatively. We examined the effect of “smoothing” or balancing the elective surgical schedule over the five weekdays on ED length of stay as a surrogate marker of ED crowding. Previous literature has demonstrated that each additional elective surgical case can prolong the mean length of stay per ED patient because of competition for in-patient beds.

 

Methods: The Division of Vascular Surgery was asked to each limit the number of elective surgical cases to no more than two per day. Based on previous experience, two cases per day for five days exceeded the number that the vascular surgeons typically performed in a week. Agreement with this new paradigm was accomplished by assuring surgeons that they would be able to perform all elective cases in timely fashion and that no case would be turned away. A similar plan was developed for the Department of Thoracic Surgery. After implementation, the need for in-patient beds for elective surgical cases was measured for both services. The number of direct nursing hours on the floors that received these post-operative patients was measured since the demand for nursing staffing was expected to become more predictable. Finally, the time from ED decision to admit to actual departure to the floor, and, total length of stay for admitted ED patients were measured.

 

Results: The interventions were successful in limiting the number of elective vascular and thoracic surgical cases requiring in-patient beds to the maximum of two cases per day per service. The number of direct nursing hours decreased by over 6% from 8.66 hours per patient day to 8.16 after “smoothing” of the surgical schedule. This resulting in a savings of several hundreds of thousands of dollars because of more predictable nursing scheduling and fewer overtime payments. The time from ED presentation to decision to admit did not change; but, the time from decision to admit to departure for the floor for admitted patients decreased by a mean of 30 minutes (19%) per patient from 162 to 132 minutes. As a result, the total ED length of stay for admitted patients decreased by a mean of 30 minutes.

 

Conclusion: “Smoothing” the elective surgical schedule can result in lowering costs for overtime pay on the nursing floors that receive these patient postoperatively. Moreover, by reducing “artificial” variability in surgical scheduling we were able to reduce the total length of stay for patients admitted from the ED by a mean of 30 minutes.

Niels RATHLEV (Wellesley, USA)
13:40 - 13:50 #7809 - OP005 ED Crowding - Key Players in Key Roles.
ED Crowding - Key Players in Key Roles.

Background: The percentage of patients who leave without being seen (LWBS) by a physician is commonly used as a surrogate marker of ED crowding. In December 2012, a new ED opened at Baystate Medical Center in Springfield, Massachusetts. The new ED had 94 licensed beds, four separate Pods and three times the area (72,000 sq. ft.) of the old facility. The demand for ED care grew quickly from a baseline of 265 patients “seen” per day (96,725 per year). The percentage of patients who LWBS quickly became a priority because of a very high daily rate of 8.2% the first month. Nursing leadership on duty was responsible for managing patient flow, but was loosely organized and determined on an ad hoc daily basis.

 Methods: With the goals of improving efficiency, reducing the percentage of patients who LWBS and increasing the number of patients “seen” per day, nursing leadership roles were assigned to selected individuals with demonstrated management skills. Physician staffing was not added. The Charge Nurse was responsible for coordinating care throughout the ED and was responsible for all four Pods. This individual managed current resources and requested additional personnel and equipment when necessary. The Charge Nurse also coordinated the transfer of admitted patients to appropriate in-patient settings and initiated a call for assistance from in-patient services when the boarding of these patients exceeded certain benchmarks. The Flow Coordinator accepted transfers from other facilities and notification of patient arrivals from primary care and specialist physicians. Reports from Emergency Medical Services regarding in-coming traffic were also accepted by the Flow Coordinator. The Pod Lead Nurse assumed the coordination of care within each Pod for every shift. “Direct bedding” of new patients into open ED bays was the became the standard while bypassing the Waiting Room altogether after triage. Measures were calculated over a 3-year period as the mean per week of daily outcomes. The number of patients actually “seen” was approximately normally distributed; therefore, simple linear regression was used for analysis. Total walkouts as a percentage of total volume was analyzed using fractional logistic regression, since the dependent variable was a proportion ranging between 0 and 1.  All analyses were conducted in Stata (version 14.0, StataCorp, Colleg Station, TX).  A critical test level of 5% was considered statistically significant.

 

 Results: The percentage of patients who LWBS declined steadily over time with a negative trend line reaching 4.5% in December 2015. This was a 45% decrease in three years. The number of patients “seen” rose steadily with a positive trend line to a mean of 316 per day (115,340 per year) in the same timeframe. This represented a 19% increase despite no increase in physicians staffing. The regression lines for both measures were significant at P< 0.001.

 Conclusion: Measures of ED efficiency include the percentage of patients who LWBS and the number of patients “seen” on a daily basis. These outcomes can be improved significantly with a dedicated nursing management structure that is clearly focused on efficiency without adding physician staffing.

Niels RATHLEV (Wellesley, USA), Joseph SCHMIDT, Paul VISINTAINER
13:50 - 14:00 #7852 - OP006 Risk stratification in acute coronary syndrome: evaluation of the GRACE and CRUSADE scores in the setting of a tertiary care centre.
Risk stratification in acute coronary syndrome: evaluation of the GRACE and CRUSADE scores in the setting of a tertiary care centre.

Background:

The management in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is influenced by risk assessment. The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) and the Can Rapid risk stratification of Unstable angina patients Suppress Adverse outcomes with Early implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines (CRUSADE) scores are among the most frequently used risk assessment tools. A recently published study on 1,587 patients suggested a clear superiority of the GRACE vs. the CRUSADE score to predict in-hospital mortality and major bleeding. These results were noted controversially in the scientific community.  

Objectives:

We aimed to assess the performance of the GRACE and CRUSADE risk scores to predict in-hospital mortality and major bleeding in a contemporary ACS population at a high-volume centre.

Methods:

All patients treated for ACS from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2015 at our tertiary care centre were prospectively included in our registry. Demographic and clinical characteristics as well as details on diagnostic findings and therapy were collected according to the Cardiology Audit and Registration Data Standards (CARDS) of the European Society of Cardiology. GRACE and CRUSADE risk scores were calculated. The discrimination capacity of both scores for in-hospital mortality and major bleeding were compared using receiver operating characteristic curves and the method suggested by DeLong et al.

Results:

In total 4,087 patients (874 (21.4%) female; age 62±14 years) were included, 2218 (54.3%) were diagnosed with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), 2973 (72.7%) underwent acute percoutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), 92 (2.3%) received thrombolytic therapy, 113 (2.8%) died, and major bleeding occurred in 65 (1.6%).  Based on GRACE risk categories 1,031 patients (25.2%) had low risk, 1,401 patients (34.3%) had intermediate risk, and 1,655 patients (40.5%) had high risk. Risk based on CRUSADE categories was very low/low in 1,505 patients (36.8%), moderate in 924 patients (22.6%), and high/very high risk in 1,658 patients (40.6%). Discrimination capacity for in-hospital mortality of the GRACE score was superior to the CRUSADE score (area under the curve (AUC) 0.91 (95% CI 0.89 - 0.93) vs. 0.83 (95% CI 0.80-0.86); p<0.05). Performance for major bleeding was poor for both scores (AUC 0.71 (0.65-0.76) for GRACE vs. 0.61 (0.55-0.68) for CRUSADE; ns).

Conclusion:

Our findings support a superiority of the GRACE over the CRUSADE score to predict in-hospital mortality. Major bleeding is rare in the era of primary PCI and performance of both scores to predict it was poor, however there was a trend towards superiority of the GRACE score for this outcome, too.

Katharina TSCHERNY (Pottenbrunn, AUSTRIA), Raphael VAN TULDER, Harald HERKNER, Christof HAVEL, Wolfgang SCHREIBER, Dominik ROTH
14:00 - 14:10 #7994 - OP007 Additional value of copeptin and FABP to the HEART score.
Additional value of copeptin and FABP to the HEART score.

Introduction

Chest pain is a frequent complaint at the emergency department (ED). It is often difficult to differentiate between an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and other causes of chest pain. The HEART score is a validated risk score for all patients with chest pain at the ED.

Troponin is one of the key elements of the HEART score. Currently other biomarkers are known to rise early in case of an ACS, such as copeptin and fatty acid binding protein (FABP). We investigated if the accuracy of the HEART score increases by adding copeptin and FABP to the HEART score.

 

Study design

In 586 patients with chest pain we collected all elements of the HEART score plus copeptin and FABP on arrival at the ED.

We compared the discriminative performances (c-statistic) of the original HEART score vs the HEART score plus copeptin or FABP for the occurrence of Major Adverse Cardiac Events (MACE).

 

Results

In total 164 patients (28.96 %) reached at least one MACE within six weeks (140 AMI, 88 PCI, 15 CABG, one death). The event rate in patients with a HEART score of zero to three was 0.6%. The c-statistics for MACE were: HEART 0.877, HEART+copeptin 0.877 (p=0.868), HEART+FABP 0.886 (p=0.032).

 

Conclusions

In this study the addition of copeptin does not improve the HEART score. The addition of FABP slightly improves the discriminating performance of the HEART score in chest pain patients. Adding FABP to the HEART score could improve the rule out of ACS at the ED.

Simone GOPAL (Breda, THE NETHERLANDS), Barbra BACKUS, Leo JACOBS, Roger HESSELS, Ron KUSTERS
14:10 - 14:20 #8203 - OP008 The prognostic value of intrahospital hemorrhagic complications for acute coronary syndrome without ST elevation patients in the Emergency Department.
The prognostic value of intrahospital hemorrhagic complications for acute coronary syndrome without ST elevation patients in the Emergency Department.

Introduction:

Hemorrhagic complications were associated with short-term mortality in patients with acute coronary syndrome without ST elevation (NSTEMI). The CRUSADE score (Circulation 2009) was used to assess the short-term mortality. But its predictive value for the midterm mortality has been poorly studied.

Objective: We propose to determine the predictive value of the 6 month mortality CRUSADE score for NSTEMI patients seen in the emergency department (ED).

Materials and methods:

A prospective observational study was conducted over two years. Patients with NSTEMI diagnosis was made. Anamnestic, clinical, electrocardiographic, biological and therapeutic criteria were collected. The CRUSADE score was calculated. The prognosis was based on the 6-month mortality. Multivariate analysis by multiple logistic regression was performed.

Results:

Three hundred and ninety patients were included. Mean age 61 + -11 years. Sex ratio to 1.34. Comorbidities N (%): HTA 235 (60), Diabetes 208 (53), dyslipidemia 112 (29), tobacco 101 (26), Coronary Artery Disease 112 (31). Overall mortality at 6 months was 5%. The mean CRUSADE score was higher in the non survivors patients comparing to the survivors: 45± 11 vs 27 ±11 respectively, P <0.001.  The CRUSADE score was predictive of 6 months mortality with a cut-off at 45 with an area under the curve at 0.82, 95% CI [0.74 to 0.90]. Sensitivity = 53%, specificity = 86%, Liklehood ratio (LR) += 3.78, LR- = 0.54.

Conclusion:

Hemorrhagic complications have a major impact on the short and midterm mortality prognosis of NSTEMI patients. Including the CRUSADE score in the management and risk stratification of NSTEMI patients could reduce the midterm mortality.

Rania JEBRI (Ben Arous, TUNISIA), Hanen GHAZALI, Manel BAYAR, Anware YAHMADI , Jihen ESSID, Mahbouba CHKIR, Ahlem AZOUZI, Sami SOUISSI
14:20 - 14:30 #8214 - OP009 Benefit of NTproBNP in the etiological diagnosis of acute dyspnea in the emergency department.
Benefit of NTproBNP in the etiological diagnosis of acute dyspnea in the emergency department.

Introduction:

Dyspnea is a common pattern to seek care in the emergency department (ED). Distinguish cardiac or respiratory origin is a diagnostic challenge for the emergency physicians especially with patients with several comorbidities and intricate clinical presentation.

NT-proBNP is a specific marker of acute heart failure, however, its usefulness in the diagnostic approach of acute dyspnea remains controversial which may  lead us to resort to a echocardigraphy.

Material and methods

Descriptive prospective observational study. Were included all patients who presented to the ED with acute dyspnea and whose etiology remains unclear. Patients with renal impairment have not been included (false positives of NT-pro BNP).

The diagnosis of heart failure was excluded if the NT-proBNP rate was inferior than 300 pg per ml, made if the NT-proBNP was superior than 1800 pg per ml and doubtful if the NT-proBNP rate was between 300 and 1800pg per ml. the rate of NT-pro BNP was adjusted to the patient's age by the standards of the laboratory.

Results:

During one year, 126 patients were included. The mean age was 62 ± 20 years. The sex ratio was 2.33.

The dosage of NT proBNP has laid the diagnosis of acute heart failure in 70% of cases, revealed the respiratory origin of dyspnea in 18% of cases (negative NT-proBNP). In 12% of the remaining cases, we used the transthoracic echocardiography to seek the etiological diagnosis of acute dyspnea.

Conclusion:

The dosage of NT-proBNP has laid the etiological diagnosis of dyspnea in 88% of cases. Through this study we find that the determination of NT-proBNP for any acute dyspnea of uncertain etiology may be useful. The recourse to echocardiography occurred only in 12% of cases

Olfa DJEBBI, Rania JEBRI (Ben Arous, TUNISIA), Mounir HAGGUI, Mehdi BEN LASSOUED
 
15:00
15:00-16:30
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A12
State of the Art
Pulmonary

State of the Art
Pulmonary

Moderators: Basar CANDAR (TURKEY), Roberto COSENTINI (Milano, ITALY)
15:00 - 15:30 Non-invasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure. Roberto COSENTINI (Milano, ITALY)
15:30 - 16:00 Lung ultrasound in the ED: what can be seen (and what not)? Erden Erol UNLUER (TURKEY)
16:00 - 16:30 Acute asthma exacerbation in the ED. Arschang VALIPOUR (AUSTRIA)
15:00-16:30
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B12
Austria, Germany, Switzerland Invites
EuSEM hosts ÖNK - Ausbildung im Rettungsdienst

Austria, Germany, Switzerland Invites
EuSEM hosts ÖNK - Ausbildung im Rettungsdienst

Moderators: Gerhard PRAUSE (Assoc. Prof. MD) (Graz, AUSTRIA), Mathias ZÜRCHER (SWITZERLAND)
15:00 - 15:30 Gemeinsame Weiterbildung LNA/EL San in der Schweiz. Mathias ZÜRCHER (SWITZERLAND)
15:30 - 16:00 Modulare Sanitäterausbildung: neue Perspektiven für nichtärztliche Mitarbeiter. Gerhard PRAUSE (Assoc. Prof. MD) (Graz, AUSTRIA)
16:00 - 16:30 Ausbildung von Notärzten in Österreich. Helmut TRIMMEL (AUSTRIA)
15:00-16:30
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C12
Philosophy & Controversies
P&C Trauma

Philosophy & Controversies
P&C Trauma

Moderators: Carlo D'APUZZO (Torino, ITALY), Zaffer QASIM (Baltimore, USA)
15:00 - 15:30 Controversies in chest trauma. Zaffer QASIM (Baltimore, USA)
15:30 - 16:00 What is the optimum transfusion ratio in trauma? John HOLCOMB (USA)
16:00 - 16:30 Minor head injury: a minor problem? Crispijn VAN DEN BRAND (PHYSICIAN) (den haag, THE NETHERLANDS)
15:00-16:30
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D12
Administration management
Leadership

Administration management
Leadership

Moderators: Raed ARAFAT (ROMANIA), Barbara HOGAN (Past President of the European Society for Emergency Medicine, EuSEM) (HAMBURG, GERMANY)
15:00 - 15:30 Leading IFEM: challenges and opportunities for international Emergency Medicine. Jim DUCHARME (Mississauga, CANADA)
15:30 - 16:00 EM leader and political leader. Raed ARAFAT (ROMANIA)
16:00 - 16:30 Gaining the EM specialty in Portugal. Vitor ALMEIDA (PORTUGAL)
15:00-16:30
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E12
Research
Education

Research
Education

Moderators: Iain BEARDSELL (UK), Ruth BROWN (Speaker) (London, UK), Gregor PROSEN (MARIBOR, SLOVENIA), Anna SPITERI (Consultant) (Malta, MALTA)
15:00 - 15:30 Beef-Up Your EM Education Program with Open-Access Scenarios and Checklists. Gregor PROSEN (MARIBOR, SLOVENIA), Eric DRYVER (Consultant) (Lund, SWEDEN)
15:30 - 16:00 The physician and their skills development – utilising feedback. Ruth BROWN (Speaker) (London, UK), Cristian BOERIU (Assoc.Professor) (Targu Mures, ROMANIA), Sabine LEMOYNE (Senior Staff Member) (Edegem, BELGIUM)
16:00 - 16:30 Assessment – why and how? Nikolas SBYRAKIS (GREECE), Cornelia HARTEL (Consultant in Emergency Medicine/ Director of Medical Education in Emergency Medicine) (Stockholm, SWEDEN), M Ashraf BUTT (CAVAN, IRELAND)
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F12
YEMD
Humanitarian medicine

YEMD
Humanitarian medicine

Moderators: Dean DE MEIRSMAN (Emergency medicine resident) (Paal, BELGIUM), Dusica JANKOVIC (Nis, SERBIA)
15:00 - 15:30 Humanitarian refugee crisis in the Balkans-medical aspects. Dusica JANKOVIC (Nis, SERBIA)
15:30 - 16:00 Organising professional disaster response—the UK experience. Amy HUGHES (Manchester, UK)
16:00 - 16:30 Opportunities for young doctors in Humanitarian and disaster response. Luca RAGAZZONI (Novara, ITALY)
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G12
EuSEM Meets ICOH
Emergency Medicine at the Working Place

EuSEM Meets ICOH
Emergency Medicine at the Working Place

Moderators: Alexis DESCATHA (FRANCE), Luis GARCIA-CASTRILLO (Espagne, SPAIN)
15:00 - 15:30 The Emergency Physician point of view. Michel BAER (physician) (GARCHES, FRANCE)
15:30 - 16:00 The academic point of view. Alexis DESCATHA (FRANCE)
16:00 - 16:30 The occupational Physician point of view. Susanne SCHUNDER-TATZER (AUSTRIA)
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OP12
Oral Papers 12

Oral Papers 12

Moderators: Hani HARIRI (Riyadh, SAUDI ARABIA), Karim TAZAROURTE (Chef de service) (Lyon, FRANCE)
15:00 - 15:10 #7334 - OP010 Validation of BAP-65 score for prediction of in-hospital death or use of mechanical ventilation in patients presenting to the emergency department with acute exacerbations of COPD: a retrospective multi-center study from the SIMEU study group.
Validation of BAP-65 score for prediction of in-hospital death or use of mechanical ventilation in patients presenting to the emergency department with acute exacerbations of COPD: a retrospective multi-center study from the SIMEU study group.

Background Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) require frequent hospitalization, may necessitate mechanical ventilation (MV) and are associated with a remarkable in-hospital mortality. The BAP-65 score is based on information easily available (elevated blood urea nitrogen [BUN], altered mental status, pulse > 109 beats/min, age > 65 years), and may serve clinicians as a simple risk-stratification tool. We aimed to describe the characteristics of patients attending EDs for an AECOPD, the management of events and the final outcome. We further validated the BAP-65 ability to predict in-hospital death or the need for mechanical ventilation (MV) in a large cohort of AECOPD patients admitted to the ED.

Methods We report the preliminary results of a retrospective analysis of data from 13 Italian EDs in a 12-month period (January-December 2014). Patients aged ≥ 40 years presenting to the ED with either a principal diagnosis of AECOPD or acute respiratory failure with a secondary diagnosis of AECOPD were included in the study. Information on patient demographics, clinical characteristics, including chronic COPD-related treatment, comorbidity burden according to the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), presenting symptoms, BUN level, and ED management was collected. Disposition following ED admission was retrieved. In-hospital mortality or the need for MV served as composite primary outcome. Association between a BAP-65 and the occurrence of composite outcome was investigated through univariate and multivariate logistic regression. We assessed the discrimination of BAP-65 via the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and the prognostic performance of a BAP-65 score ≥ 4 for the primary outcome.

Results A total of 2098 patients were included in the study; 789 (37.6%) were female, mean age was 74±15 years. Comorbidity burden was low (CCI 0) in 623 (29.7%) cases, moderate (CCI 1-2) in 909 (43.3%), and severe (CCI ≥3) in 566 (26.9%) patients. Almost half cases (n = 1100, 52.7%) required the intervention of the emergency ambulance services. Following the ED visit, 621 cases (29.6%) were sent home; 153 cases (7.3%) received a short-term observation; 1172 (55.9%) were admitted to hospital wards. In-hospital death occurred in 74 patients (3.5%), MV was deemed necessary in 27 (1.3%) cases. Five centres (680 patients) were not able to provide data on BUN and were excluded from the validation analysis. A total of 273 (19.2%) patients had a BAP-65 score ≥ 4. The multivariable analysis showed a significant association between the BAP-65 score and the primary outcome (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.08-2.53). The AUROC for BAP-65 was 0.67 (95 % CI 0.60-0.75). The sensitivity of BAP-65 score ≥ 4 to predict the composite outcome was 92.5% (95% CI 91.1-93.8), the specificity was 21.6% (95% CI 19.5-23.8)., the positive predictive value was 4.4% (95% CI 3.3-5.4), and the negative predictive value was 98.7 (95% CI 98.1-99.3).

Conclusion: We confirmed BAP-65 score to have high sensitivity and negative predictive value for short-term mortality or use of MV in patients with AECOPD. Our findings suggest that it can be safely used as triage instrument at ED to identify low risk patients.

Federico GERMINI (Milano, ITALY), Giacomo VERONESE, Giulia Maria AZIN, Massimo ZACCHINO, Maura MARCUCCI, Daniele COEN, Andrea FABBRI
15:10 - 15:20 #7608 - OP011 Troponin only Manchester Acute Coronary Syndromes (TMACS) decision aid: single biomarker re-derivation and external validation in three cohorts.
Troponin only Manchester Acute Coronary Syndromes (TMACS) decision aid: single biomarker re-derivation and external validation in three cohorts.

Background

The original Manchester Acute Coronary Syndromes decision aid (MACS) is a computer-based model that ‘rules in’ and ‘out’ acute coronary syndromes (ACS) using high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) measured at admission. The latter is not always available. We aimed to refine and validate MACS as T-MACS, cutting down the biomarkers to just hs-cTnT. Our primary objective was therefore to return to the derivation of the original MACS model but using hs-cTnT as the only biomarker (T-MACS), and then to evaluate the model in three separate external cohort studies. A secondary objective was to compare the predictive characteristics of TMACS to MACS and to the alternative ‘LoD strategy’, by which ACS is excluded in patients with a hs-cTnT concentration below the limit of detection (LoD) of the assay and no ECG ischaemia.

Methods

We present secondary analyses from four prospective diagnostic cohort studies including patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) with suspected ACS. Data were collected and hs-cTnT measured on arrival. The primary outcome was ACS, defined as prevalent acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or incident death, AMI or coronary revascularization within 30 days. AMI was adjudicated based on reference standard troponin testing (12h after symptom onset or 6h after arrival) with reference to the third universal definition of myocardial infarction. T-MACS was built by logistic regression in one cohort (derivation set) and validated in three external cohorts (validation set).

Results

In the derivation set (n=703), T-MACS could ‘rule out’ 37.7% patients with 99.3% (95% CI 97.3– 99.9%) negative predictive value (NPV) and 98.7% (95.3–99.8%) sensitivity for ACS. In the validation set (n=1,459), T-MACS could ‘rule out’ 40.4% (n=590) patients with 99.3% (98.3–99.8%) NPV and 98.1% (95.2–99.5%) sensitivity. T-MACS would ‘rule in’ 10.1% and 4.7% patients in the respective sets, of which 100.0% and 91.3% had ACS. C-statistics for the original and refined rules were similar (T-MACS 0.91 vs. MACS 0.90 on validation).

In the validation set, original MACS had 100.0% sensitivity, which was not significantly different to T-MACS (absolute difference 1.6%, 95% CI -0.7 to 1.6%, p=0.25) but T-MACS had greater specificity (absolute difference 25.9%, 95% CI 35.3 - 25.9%, p<0.0001) meaning that T-MACS would avoid more hospital admissions. T-MACS had identical sensitivity to the 'LoD strategy' (absolute difference 0.0%, 95% CI -2.2 to 2.2%, p=1.00) but T-MACS had greater specificity (absolute difference 9.8%, 95% CI 6.7 to 12.7%, p<0.0001). Thus, T-MACS would have 'ruled out' ACS in 40.4% patients (n=590) compared to 32.1% (n=468) for the LoD strategy. 

Conclusions

T-MACS could ‘rule out’ ACS in 40% of patients while ‘ruling in’ 5% at highest risk using a single hscTnT measurement on arrival. It has similar sensitivity to the original MACS decision aid and the LoD strategy but greater specificity than both. As a clinical decision aid, T-MACS could therefore help to conserve healthcare resources. 

Richard BODY (, UK), Edward CARLTON, Matthew SPERRIN, Philip S LEWIS, Gillian BURROWS, Simon D CARLEY, Garry MCDOWELL, Iain BUCHAN, Kim GREAVES, Kevin MACKWAY-JONES
15:20 - 15:30 #7616 - OP012 Manchester Acute Coronary Syndromes (MACS) decision rule successfully reduces unnecessary hospital admissions: a pilot randomized controlled trial.
Manchester Acute Coronary Syndromes (MACS) decision rule successfully reduces unnecessary hospital admissions: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

Background

Observational research, including two external validation studies, shows that the Manchester Acute Coronary Syndromes (MACS) decision rule can effectively ‘rule out’ and ‘rule in’ acute coronary syndromes following a single blood test in the Emergency Department (ED). MACS is a computer model that uses a combination of clinical features and two biomarkers (high sensitivity cardiac troponin T and heart-type fatty acid binding protein) to estimate the probability that a patient has an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and stratify patients into four groups. Patients in the 'very low risk' group could be immediately discharged from hospital in the appropriate clinical circumstances. 

We aimed to evaluate the impact of using the MACS rule in practice. Anticipating a modest effect size that would require a large trial, our objectives were two-fold: (a) to evaluate the feasibility of running a multi-centre randomised controlled trial (RCT) to compare use of the MACS rule to standard practice; and (b) to assess, in patients presenting to the ED with possible acute coronary syndromes, whether use of the MACS rule can increase the proportion of patients safely discharged within 4 hours, compared with contemporary clinical pathways.

Methods

In a pragmatic pilot RCT, consenting patients presenting to two EDs with suspected cardiac chest pain were randomised, stratified by trial centre and MACS risk group in a 1:1 ratio, to receive care guided by the MACS decision rule (intervention group) or standard care according to contemporary guidelines (controls). The primary efficacy outcome was successful discharge from the ED, defined as a decision to discharge within 4h of arrival providing that the patient did not have a missed AMI or develop a major adverse cardiac event (MACE: death, acute myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization) within 30 days. Feasibility outcomes included recruitment and attrition rates, patient satisfaction and acceptability of the MACS decision rule to clinicians.

Results

In total 138 patients were included across 22 weeks, of whom 131 (95%) were randomised (66 in the intervention group and 65 controls). All 131 patients completed 30-day follow up and were included in the final analysis. Seventeen (26%) patients in the intervention group were successfully discharged within 4h compared to 5 (8%) controls (odds ratio 5.5, 95% CI 1.7-17.1, p=0.004). No patients in either group who were discharged within 4h developed MACE. There were no significant differences in patient satisfaction between groups. Clinicians gave a median acceptability score of 5.1/6 indicating high overall acceptability.

Conclusions

In this pilot trial, the MACS rule led to a significant reduction in safe discharges from the ED when used in practice. We have demonstrated the feasibility of a larger trial, which would provide greater statistical power for safety outcomes.

Richard BODY (, UK), Charles BOACHIE, Alex MCCONNACHIE, Simon D CARLEY, Patricia VAN DEN BERG, Fiona LECKY
15:30 - 15:40 #7634 - OP013 Prognostic utility of quantifying ST-segment depression in patients with non- ST- segment elevationacute coronary syndromes (NSTEMI -ACS).
Prognostic utility of quantifying ST-segment depression in patients with non- ST- segment elevationacute coronary syndromes (NSTEMI -ACS).

Background: The presence of ST- segment depression (STD) on the admission electrocardiogram (ECG) has been well recognized to be a powerful adverse prognosticator [1].Several clinical trial investigations have further suggested that more extensive STD on admission predicts a greater risk of adverse cardiovascular events [2].

 

Purpose:The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the magnitude of STD and adverse events: angina recurrence, myocardial infarction (MI) and death at 30 days.

 

Methods: A prospective observational study conducted in the emergency department (ED). We enrolled patients aged more than 18 years, presenting to the hospital alive with presumptive diagnosis of ACS and STD on the admission ECG.STD was considered to be present if ≥ 1leads exhibited STD ≥ 0, 05 mV. Three groups were defined according to quantitative ST depression : GP1 < 1 mm, GP2 = 1 - 2 mm , GP3 ≥ 2 mm. Patients with incomplete ECG, left bundle branch block, right bundle branch block, ventricular pacemakers were excluded from the analysis.

 

Results: Eighty one patients were included, mean age= 61± 11 years, 60%were male. Patients history (%): Smoker (47), hypertension (49), diabetes mellitus (59), hyperlipidemia(10), previous MI(35), heart failure (8%), Previous coronary intervention (18), previous coronary bypass surgery (6). The troponin I was positive in 52 patients. Among patients exhibiting STD on admission we individualized: GP1 (N=37), GP2 (N=33), GP3 (N=11).The magnitude of STD has a significant interaction for all outcomes (P-values for interaction): angina recurrence (0,012), MI (0,002), 30 days mortality (0,003).

 

Conclusion: Although the presence of STD has been incorporated as an independent dichotomous prognosticator into several trials, the magnitude of STD confers adverse prognosis in patients with NSTEMI-ACS and should be employed to assist medical decision making.

References:

[1] Kaul et al. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001; 38:64-71.

[2] Raymond Tet al. Eur Heart J 2010; 31:958-966

Hana HEDHLI, Salwa MANSOURI (Ariana, TUNISIA), Sarra JOUINI, Hela MANNAI, Houssem AOUNI, Béchir BOUHAJJA, Ines CHERMITI
15:40 - 15:50 #7786 - OP014 Thrombolytic Therapy on acute coronary syndrome with ST segment elevation in emergency department : Predictors of TIMI 3 coronary flow.
OP014 Thrombolytic Therapy on acute coronary syndrome with ST segment elevation in emergency department : Predictors of TIMI 3 coronary flow.

Introduction :

Thrombolytic therapy of acute coronary syndromes with ST segment elevation (STEMI) helped ahieve better outcome especially in hospitals without cath-lab department .

Objetive :

 The purpose of this study was to identify patient characteristics that are a priori predictors of early infarct related artery patency following thrombolytic therapy in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with STEMI.

 

Materiel and method:

Prospective study over a period of 5 years. Were included all the patients admitted to the emergency department with STEMI within less than 12 hours, which were thrombolysed and for whom the results of coronary angiography was collected. Anamnestic, clinical features, treatment and outcome characteristic were collected. The success of lysis was defined by a TIMI III coronary flow.

Results:

During a period of 5 years, 193 patients were included, mean age  58 +/- 11 years, the sex ratio was 6.4. Comorbidities: N (%) : history of smoking 153 (79), Diabetes 63 (32), hypertension 60 (31), dyslipidemia 23 (12%), coronaropathy  8 (4%). The mean time of ED visit was 179 +/- 158 min, with a mean first-time medical thrombolysis contact 32 min +/- 22, and a mean hospital stay of 231 minutes (+/- 325).

In univariate analysis, time of visit to the ED, SBP, history of smoking, diabetes and inferior infraction were identified as predictive factors of success.

In multivariate analysis, only the inferior infraction was identified as predictor of thrombolysis success with OR 1.4, 95% CI [1.04 to 1.89], p = 0.02.

Conclusion :

STEMI in the lower territory have better outcomes after thrombolysis in the ED.

Aymen ZOUBLI, Sami SOUISSI, Rania JEBRI (Ben Arous, TUNISIA), Wided BAHRIA, Anware YAHMADI, Farah RIAHI, Mohamed MGUIDICH, Hanane GHAZALI
15:50 - 16:00 #7828 - OP015 Acute coronary syndrome with ST segment elevation (STEMI): Impact of a medical intermediary to trigger the prehospital Emergency Medical Services.
Acute coronary syndrome with ST segment elevation (STEMI): Impact of a medical intermediary to trigger the prehospital Emergency Medical Services.

Introduction: The prognosis for patients with an acute coronary syndrome with ST segment elevation (STEMI) is determined by the reperfusion time period. The presence of an intermediary, such as a general practitioner (GP) or cardiologist before the call to the prehospital Emergency Medical Services could help extend these time periods.

Goal: To evaluate patient handling times and the rate of reperfusion decisions by origin of the call to theprehospital Emergency Medical Services.

Methods: Data was retrieved from a regional register of 8 prehospital Emergency Medical Services and 39 medical intensive care units (MICU). Inclusion criteria: patients with a STEMI of less than 24 hours. Exclusion criteria: secondary transfer. Judgement criteria: period between pain and patient handling by MICU and the rate of reperfusion decisions.

Results: 9,858 patients with STEMI were included from 2009 to 2014. The prehospital Emergency Medical Services were called in 6,457 (65%) of the cases by the patient, relative or friend, in 1,209 (12%) of the cases by a GP/cardiologist, in 1,810 (18%) of the cases by firefighters and in 382 (4%) of the cases by other callers. Consistent breakdown over the period was studied. The average period between pain and patient handling was significantly prolonged if the call was from a GP/cardiologist (versus a call by the patient or firefighters) (181 [79-437] minutes versus 50 [20-130] minutes; p <0.0001). By comparison, people using a medical intermediary before calling the prehospital Emergency Medical Services were significantly older (64.2 [53.8 to 76.5] against 60.2 [51.8 to 72.2]), more likely to be women (29.2% against 20.4%), were less typical syndrome (83.7% against 88.5%), had less medical history (90.3% against 92.3%) and had fewer unblocking decisions (89.2% against 95.9%). The main prognosis was not significantly different (3.9% against 4.5%; p = 0.4).

Conclusion: The delay before patient handling was significantly extended if there was an intermediary, GP or cardiologist. These patients, who were older and more often women, with less medical history and more unusual pain, encountered lower rates of reperfusion decisions.

Gaelle LE BAIL, Alain COURTIOL, Alexandre ALLONNEAU (Paris), François-Xavier LABORNE, Aurélie LOYEAU, Virginie PIRÈS, Thévy BOCHE, Jean-Michel JULIARD, François DUPAS, Yves LAMBERT, Hugues LEFORT, Frédéric LAPOSTOLLE
16:00 - 16:10 #7876 - OP016 Diagnosis, Management and Risk Profile Of Patients With Venous Thromboembolism Attended In Spanish Emergency Departments: Espheria Registry.
OP016 Diagnosis, Management and Risk Profile Of Patients With Venous Thromboembolism Attended In Spanish Emergency Departments: Espheria Registry.

Background

In most cases in which venous thromboembolism (VTE) is developed in the outpatient setting, the Emergency Departments (EDs) is where the disease is actually diagnosed. Surprisingly, however, few studies have analyzed the characteristics of patients with VTE and the disease itself from the perspective of the ED.  This is relevant for several reasons. Firstly, little is known about the epidemiology of VTE in the ED and the risk factors most frequently presented by patients diagnosed with an episode of VTE in the ED. Secondly, few studies have evaluated the most adequate management of patients with VTE by emergency physicians or whether this managment is carried out according to the recommendations of the clinical practice guidelines (CPG), and if this has any repercussion on the final outcome of the patient. Lastly, little is known about the treatment performed in the ED and how this may influence the outcome of the patient.

 

Aim. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical presentation of VTE and the main risk factors involved in patients diagnosed in Spanish EDs as well as evaluate the management of these patients and adherence to clinical practice guidelines by emergency physicians.

Methods. We performed a prospective cohort study in 53 Spanish EDs, consecutively including patients diagnosed with VTE in the ED. The following data were evaluated: demographic, comorbidities, risk factors for the development of VTE, index event, hemorrhagic risk factors, prognostic factors [pulmonary embolism (PE)] and in-hospital mortality. To evaluate health care quality we determined the percentage of patients registered with clinical probability of PE, requests for D-dimer concentrations according to clinical probability, administration of treatment prior to confirmation of diagnosis based on clinical probability and records of risk of bleeding and prognosis of the patients with VTE. 

Results. Of 549,840 ED visits made over a mean period of 40 days, 905 patients were diagnosed with VTE (impact 1.6/1000 visits). Of these, 801 patients were included in the analysis, 49.8% of whom had PE with or without deep venous trhrombosis (DVT).  The most frequent risk factors for VTE were: age (≥70 years), obesity, new immobility, previous VTE and active cancer. In the ED medical reports a scale of clinical probability, the prognosis or the risk of bleeding were only described in 7.6%, 7.5% and 1%, respectively of the cases. Of the patients with PE and high clinical probability, D-dimer was determined in 87.2%, and treatment was initiated prior to confirmation in 35.9%. Regarding risk, 31.3% of the patients with PE presented low risk, 59.1% intermediate-low risk, 6% intermediate-high risk and 3.5% high risk. Of the patients with PE, 98.7% were hospitalized while 50.2% of the VTE (without PE) were admitted. The in-hospital mortality of the patients with PE was 3.8%. 

Conclusion. VTE has an appreciable impact on Spanish EDs. Risk profile for the VTE development  in patients diagnosed in ED being similar to previous studies. Adherence to CPG recommendations needs to significantly improve.

Marta MERLO (MADRID, SPAIN), Pedro RUIZ-ARTACHO, Pascual PIÑERA, Coral SUERO, Albert ANTOLIN, José Ramón CASAL, Marta SÁNCHEZ-GONZÁLEZ, Pablo HERRERO, Sònia JIMENEZ
16:10 - 16:20 #8024 - OP017 Knowledge of risk factors for venous thromboembolisms and the use of low molecular weight heparin in the emergency departement.
OP017 Knowledge of risk factors for venous thromboembolisms and the use of low molecular weight heparin in the emergency departement.

INTRODUCTION

Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) are commonly prescribed in the emergency department (ED). Not prescribing LMWH for patients with lower limb immobilization (LLI) and at risk for venous thromboembolic events (VTE) can be life-threatening. The incidence of VTE in patients with LLI is estimated between 5 - 39%. The known risk factors for VTE are easily misinterpreted we noticed in our departement. 

METHODS

 

Participants were asked about their prescribing behavior: the influence of risk factors for VTE, the level of evidence and the need for dose reduction in patients with renal failure.

Ethical committee was obtained and a online questionnaire was created.

 

RESULTS

75 questionnaires were filled out by physicians, both attendings (65,3%) and residents (32%), working at EDs.

89% of the respondents does not differentiate immobilization of grade III distortions from fractures when prescribing LMWH and 14,9% indicates being influenced by the type of immobilization (splint versus circular cast).

Withholding treatment in patients with known risk factors, other than the immobilization itself, was seen for known risk factors: hormonal therapy (28%), history (24%) and pregnancy (22.6%). Of the respondents 88% recognized that BMI is a risk factor.

56% wrongly indicated being influenced by the patient’s gender in their decision and 4% indicated using the age of 60 or higher as the cut-off for prescribing LMWH.

Renal insufficiency was not taken into account in 39.1% of the responders.

 

CONCLUSION

It is important to only initiate VTE-prophylaxis in patients where benefits outweigh the possible risks.

Based on the results of our multi-center survey, we can conclude that a lot of physicians aren’t familiar with the correct use of LMWH in the ED. It seems that the role of gender and age is not well known. More surprisingly, more than half of the respondents does not consider LLI itself as risk factor. In contrast, about one fourth of the physicians would not prescribe LMWH even though the patient has a proven risk factor for VTE.

Dose reduction is an important issue in patients with severe renal insufficiency and is apparently easily forgotten.

Even though there is extensive research available about the risk factors for development of VTE, a lot of physicians seem to be having difficulties identifying patients at increased risk. In addition, most research available about the subject is not applicable on the population encountered in the ED. 

The decision pathway is not difficult so flowcharts could easily be created to limit the possibility of errors in interpretation of the risk factors.

Further research is planned based on the results of this research, an international multi-center study is planned to follow this national enquiry.

Annelies VANDEWEGE (GENT, BELGIUM), Lien MESTDAGH, Tom SCHMITZ, Ives HUBLOUE
16:20 - 16:30 #8151 - OP018 Acute coronary syndrome with ST segment elevation admitted in emergency department. Risk factors of cardiac arrest.
OP018 Acute coronary syndrome with ST segment elevation admitted in emergency department. Risk factors of cardiac arrest.

Background: Half of cardiac arrests (CA) complicating acute coronary syndromes with ST segment elevation (STEMI) occurred during the first two hours. During this initial phase, STEMI were supported in emergency department in the absence of direct orientation to the interventional cardiology structures. Prevalence, risk factors and prognosis of CA complicating STEMI admitted to the emergency department were not well assessed.   

 

Aim of study:  To study the risk factors and prognosis of cardiac arrest occurring during the initial management of STEMI in the emergency department.

 

Methods: Prospective observational study extended over a period of 81 months (January 2009-September 2015) in the emergency department of regional hospital in Ben Arous. Inclusion of patients admitted for STEMI lasting for less than 24 hours. The demographic, clinical, electrocardiographic and therapeutic data were collected. Analysis of patients group complicated of CA in emergency department. Identification of factors related to the occurrence of CA using a logistic regression model.

 

Results: Inclusion of 694 STEMI with a mean age of 60 ± 12 years and a sex ratio of 5. The cardiovascular risk factors were dominated by active smoking (71%) followed by hypertension (35%) and diabetes (32%). The median time of consultation was 150 min (5 min to 24 h). Fibrinolysis was administered in 72% of patients with a success rate of 59%.the most dreaded complications related to the SCA were the cardiogenic shock (10%) and  the cardiac arrest (9%). Patients who experienced CA (n=62) had a mean age of 60 ± 12 years and a male predominance with a sex ratio of 6. Active smoking was the most common cardiovascular risk factor (73%). The median time of consultation was 120 min (30 min and 16 h). Analysis of the initial rhythm of CA objectified ventricular fibrillation (72%), asystole (18%) and ventricular tachycardia (10%). The STEMI was in the anterior territory in 70% of patients and in the lower area in 32% of patients. The treatment in emergency includes (n): External Defibrillation (55), intubation (28), catecholamines (22), anti-arrhythmic (16). Multivariate analysis identified three independent factors related to the occurrence of CA: cardiogenic shock (OR = 2.44 95% CI 1,31- 44,54), reaching the anterior territory (OR = 1 97 95% CI 1.12 to 3.43) and pulsed oxygen saturation less than 90% (OR = 1.05 95% CI 1.02 to 1.09). The mortality of CA in the emergency department was 29%.

Conclusion: Identifying and improving care of risk factors can prevent the occurrence of CA, reduce mortality and improve the short-term prognosis of STEMI.

Ghezala CHAABENI, Hanene GHAZALI, Aymen ZOUBLI, Anware YAHMADI, Mouna GAMMOUDI, Nejla HENI, Moez MOUGAIDA, Sami SOUISSI (BEN AROUS, TUNISIA)
 
16:40
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A13
State of the Art
Education

State of the Art
Education

Moderators: Cornelia HAERTEL (Stockholm, SWEDEN), Roberta PETRINO (Head of department) (Italie, ITALY)
16:40 - 17:10 Why education is the core of European Emergency Medicine. Gregor PROSEN (MARIBOR, SLOVENIA)
17:10 - 17:40 How to integrate #FOAMed into #MedEd. Simon CARLEY (Manchester, UK)
17:40 - 18:10 FOAM: Is all that glitters gold? Carlo D'APUZZO (Torino, ITALY)
16:40-18:10
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B13
Austria, Germany, Switzerland Invites
EuSEM hosts ÖNK - Flugrettung

Austria, Germany, Switzerland Invites
EuSEM hosts ÖNK - Flugrettung

Moderators: Bernd LANG (Steyr, AUSTRIA), Helmut TRIMMEL (AUSTRIA)
16:40 - 17:10 Flugrettung in Deutschland. Matthias RUPPERT (GERMANY)
17:10 - 17:40 Flugrettung in der Schweiz. Stephan BECKER (SWITZERLAND)
17:40 - 18:10 Flugrettung in Österreich. Bernd LANG (Steyr, AUSTRIA)
16:40-18:10
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C13
Philosophy & Controversies
P&C Thrombosis

Philosophy & Controversies
P&C Thrombosis

Moderators: Thomas BENTER (GERMANY), Yonathan FREUND (Paris, FRANCE)
16:40 - 17:10 Do we need whole leg ultrasound or will serial above knee ultrasound suffice? Daniel HORNER (Manchester, UK)
17:10 - 17:40 To PERC or not to PERC? Franck VERSCHUREN (Bruxelles, BELGIUM), Yonathan FREUND (Paris, FRANCE)
17:40 - 18:10 Pulmonary embolism : clinical cases with interactive discussion. Franck VERSCHUREN (Bruxelles, BELGIUM), Yonathan FREUND (Paris, FRANCE)
16:40-18:10
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D13
Administration management
General EM

Administration management
General EM

Moderators: Colin GRAHAM (Hong Kong, HONG KONG), Crispijn VAN DEN BRAND (PHYSICIAN) (den haag, THE NETHERLANDS)
16:40 - 17:10 Strategies to cope with crowding in Hong Kong EDs. Colin GRAHAM (Hong Kong, HONG KONG)
17:10 - 17:40 Management of acute bleeding in patients on oral anticoagulants. Michael CHRIST (Director) (Lucerne, SWITZERLAND)
17:40 - 18:10 The Emergency Team – Elements to get them working. Mehmet Akif KARAMERCAN (ANKARA, TURKEY)
16:40-18:10
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E13
Research
Trauma

Research
Trauma

Moderators: Sigrid HAHN (New York, USA), Damian MACDONALD (CANADA)
16:40 - 17:10 Damage Control Resuscitation in War Trauma. Damian MACDONALD (CANADA)
17:10 - 17:40 REBOA: Lessons learned from use in the United States. Zaffer QASIM (Baltimore, USA)
17:40 - 18:10 Traumatic cardiac arrest - new evidence to support management strategies. Jason SMITH (PHYSICIAN) (Plymouth, UK)
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F13
YEMD
Work life balance

YEMD
Work life balance

Moderators: Blair GRAHAM (Research Fellow) (Plymouth, UK), Alice HUTIN (PARIS, FRANCE)
16:40 - 17:10 Does work life balance affect patient outcome? Ruth BROWN (Speaker) (London, UK)
17:10 - 17:40 Working and parenting, whose career goes first? Alice HUTIN (PARIS, FRANCE), Blair GRAHAM (Research Fellow) (Plymouth, UK)
17:40 - 18:10 Dealing with the new generation, the boss's point of view. Patrick PLAISANCE (Paris, FRANCE)
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G13
Prehospital EMS
Prehospital Research by ambulance organisations

Prehospital EMS
Prehospital Research by ambulance organisations

Moderators: Joost BIERENS (Thesis Coordinator EMDM) (Brussels, BELGIUM), Karen SMITH (UK)
16:40 - 17:10 Creating a support structure for EMS research. Karen SMITH (UK)
17:10 - 17:40 Doing EMS research as an EMT. Veronica LINDSTRÖM (Researcher, Lecture) (Stockholm, SWEDEN)
17:40 - 18:10 Best Paramedic-led studies 2010-2015. Joost BIERENS (Thesis Coordinator EMDM) (Brussels, BELGIUM)
16:40-18:10
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OP13
Oral Papers 13

Oral Papers 13

Moderators: Tom BEATTIE (UK), Karim TAZAROURTE (Chef de service) (Lyon, FRANCE)
16:40 - 16:50 #7060 - OP019 Refractory ventricular fibrillation treated with esmolol.
Refractory ventricular fibrillation treated with esmolol.

Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of esmolol treatment for patients with refractory ventricular fibrillation (RVF) and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).

Methods: This single-centre retrospective pre-post study evaluated patients who were treated between January 2012 and December 2015. Some patients had received esmolol (loading dose: 500 µg/kg, infusion: 0–100 µg/kg/min) for RVF (≥3 defibrillation attempts), after obtaining consent from the patient’s guardian.

Results: Twenty-five patients did not receive esmolol (the control group), and 16 patients received esmolol. Sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was significantly more common in the esmolol group, compared to the control group (56% vs. 16%, p = 0.007). Survival and good neurological outcomes at 30 days and at 3 months were >2-fold better in the esmolol group, compared to the control group, although these increases were not statistically significant. A multiple logistic regression model revealed that esmolol treatment provided an odds ratio of 9.24 for sustained ROSC (95% confidence interval: 1.64–52.11, p = 0.012).

Conclusions: Among patients with RVF and OHCA, treatment with esmolol was associated with higher rates of sustained ROSC and survival, and patients who received esmolol exhibited an odds ratio of 9.24 for sustained ROSC. Therefore, we suggest considering esmolol for patients with RVF and OHCA after administering standard therapy.

Seung Min PARK (Anyang, KOREA), Young Hwan LEE, Hee Cheol AHN, Young Taeck OH , Ji Hun KIM, Moon Sik KIM
16:50 - 17:00 #7192 - OP020 Cardiac arrest in children outside the hospital: what is the impact of shockable rhythms?
OP020 Cardiac arrest in children outside the hospital: what is the impact of shockable rhythms?

Introduction: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in children is a situation that faced by the whole pre-hospital emergency team. The aim of this study was to describe pediatric OHCA heart rhythms recorded by semi-automated external defibrillators (AED) used by on-scene First Aid professionals.

Material and methods: This was a prospective observational study of an urban area with high population density. It included children from 0 to 18 years in OHCA who received an AED.  When used, pediatric electrodes delivered 30 joules of energy.  The collected variables showed a relation to the epidemiological data in accordance with Utstein's recommendations, as well as the electrocardiographic data from the AEDs.

Vincent Thomas, Sabine Lemoine, Daniel Jost, Vincent Lanoë, Marilyn Franchin, Benoit Frattini, Michel Bignand, Jean-Pierre Tourtier 

Results: Over a period of 4 years, 229 children were included and 191 AED plots were analyzed.  The median [Inter Quartile Range] age was 6 [5-16] years, with 129 boys (56%). Twenty-eight children (12%) had a shockable rhythm on the First Aid workers' arrival and were multi-shocked in 39% of cases. The fraction of time devoted to external chest compressions over the total time of care was 60%. The AED reported shock in 3 children and administered an excessive shock in 1 case. The rate of successful defibrillation was 95.4%.

Conclusion: Shockable rhythms in children were rare. Reducing chest compression interruptions by First Aid workers and better consideration of pediatric specifics in the analysis algorithm of AEDs can improve care. The study continues with the collection of survival and neurological outcome data at 1 year.

Vincent THOMAS (PARIS), Sabine LEMOINE, Daniel JOST, Vincent LANOE, Marilyn FRANCHIN, Benoit FRATTINI, Michel BIGNAND, Jean Pierre TOURTIER
17:00 - 17:10 #7405 - OP021 Thromboembolic Disease in Pregnancy – Acute Management.
OP021 Thromboembolic Disease in Pregnancy – Acute Management.

Background:

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) including deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) remains one of the main direct causes of maternal death according to the Centre for Maternal and Child Enquiries. The risk of antenatal VTE is four to five folds higher in pregnant versus non-pregnant women. Acute VTE should be suspected in pregnant women with signs and symptoms of DVT and PE.

The subjective clinical assessment is unreliable in pregnancy and only a minority of women with suspected VTE have the diagnosis confirmed with objective testing. Failure to obtain objective diagnosis and subsequent treatment has been attributed to mortality in these patients according to the sequential reports on Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths. Early recognition of VTE and widespread use of low-molecular-weight-heparin (LMWH) thromboprophylaxis until the diagnosis is reached by objective testing can prevent mortality.

Method:

A retrospective study of 46 pregnant patients referred to acute ambulatory care unit with suspected VTE (suspected PE  n=24, suspected DVT n=22) was conducted over a 1 year period.

Patient demographics (age, gestation), signs and symptoms consistent with VTE, predisposing risk factors (Wells score), thromboprophylaxis with LMWH, objective testing with investigations including bloods (d-dimer<250), Chest X-rays, ECGs, Duplex Ultrasound, Ventilation perfusion (V/Q) or CT pulmonary Angiogram (CTPA) scans were analysed.

Results:

The mean age of our pregnant patients was 31 years (18-43). The mean presentation with suspected VTE was at 27 weeks.

21(46%) out of 46 patients were given LMWH thromboprophylaxis prior to objective testing. 25(64%) patients did not receive thromboprophylaxis due to prompt access to radiological imaging, low suspicion index of VTE(negative d-dimer, low Wells score) or maternal refusal until imaging was conducted. 1(2.5%) out of these 25 patients had a positive DVT scan and was commenced on LMWH immediately.

D-dimer was raised in 21(46%) patients, negative in 7(15%) patients but proven positive in 1 patient for a DVT and not conducted in 18(39%) patients given a high index of suspicion for a VTE.

9(37%) patients suspected of having a PE had a CXR and 1(4.2%) CXR was suggestive of consolidation. ECGs were performed in all patients (100%).

Of the 46 pregnant patients with suspected VTE, 5(11%) patients had a confirmed VTE on objective testing. 25(54%) patients underwent a Duplex Ultrasound, 6(13%) underwent a CTPA, V/Q scan was not conducted in any patient. 3(14%) out of 22 patients with suspected DVT had a positive duplex ultrasound. 2(8%) out of 24 patients with suspected PE had a confirmed VTE 1(4%) positive CTPA and 1(4%) positive duplex ultrasound.

Conclusion:

Pregnancy is associated with a hypercoagulable state, increasing the risk of VTE. The subjective clinical assessment of VTE is unreliable in pregnancy and if clinically suspected, treatment with LMWH should be commenced immediately until a definitive diagnosis is reached by objective testing. D-dimer is affected due to physiological changes in pregnancy and should not be relied upon. Radiological objective testing with patient counselling should be considered in all suspected cases to confirm or exclude VTE, leading to appropriate management in these high risk patients. 

Hina IFTIKHAR (london, UK), Mahnoor LALLMAHAMOOD, Anna IQBAL, Christopher MCQUITTY, Jacqueline SIA, Neil CAMPBELL
17:10 - 17:20 #7692 - OP022 Prognostic value of the NR2 peptide in patients underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
OP022 Prognostic value of the NR2 peptide in patients underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Background: It is important to know the factors affecting survival, good neurological outcome and prognosis in patients underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). NR2 (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2) peptide is a plasma biomarkers for acute cerebral ischemia.  In literature, it has not been demonstrated any study assessing NR2 levels in patients undergoing CPR. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the NR2 peptide levels and prognosis in patients underwent CPR in our hospital emergency room.

Method: In the study, the patients with cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) consecutively admitted to the emergency room and the patients suffer from CPA while being followed in the emergency department, were evaluated prospectively between October 2014 and June 2015. Traumatic, non-traumatic, pre-hospital and in-hospital cardiac arrest patients were included the study. Blood samples for NR2 and other biochemical analysis were  taken during resuscitation. NR2 levels in patients who can provided return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and not provided ROSC, and the benefits of NR2 in predicting 28-day mortality were investigated. SPSS ™ ver.16.0 was used for statistical analysis.

Results: A  hundred patients were included in the study but nine patients were excluded from the study due to errors in the blood sampling. Mean age of the patients was 63.6±17.6/year and 64.8% were male. Pre-hospital and in-hospital cardiac arrest percents were 56.0% and 44.0% respectively, and 13.2% of them were traumatic cardiac arrest patients. ROSC was achieved in 60.4% of patients. Between the patients who were achieved ROSC and those who died were detected significant differences in terms of NR2 levels (p=0.004). Although NR2 values of survivors at twenty-eight days were higher than those being exitus, there was no statistical difference (p=0,075). Also in the study,  lactate levels in patients who provided ROSC  and the patients who living 28 days were found significantly lower than those who died  (p=0.02 and p=0.01 respectively).

Conclusion: NR2 levels are increased as an indicator of the ROSC in patients who underwent CPR. This condition is thought to be associated with reperfusion. However, NR2 levels has not been shown to be superior to lactate levels in 28-day mortality prediction.

Tamer COLAK, Sedat KOCAK (KONYA, TURKEY), Zerrin Defne DUNDAR, Mehmet ERGIN, Abdullah Sadik GIRISGIN, Basar CANDER, Mehmet GUL
17:20 - 17:30 #7695 - OP023 Preceding NEWS among in-hospital cardiac arrest and their impact on survival.
OP023 Preceding NEWS among in-hospital cardiac arrest and their impact on survival.

Background: In-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) are often preceded by abnormal vital signs. Preceding abnormal vital signs might lower the physiological reserve capacity and therefore decrease survival after an IHCA.

Aim: To assess preceding national early warning score (NEWS) and its impact on survival after IHCA.

Material and methods: All patients ≥18 years suffering IHCA at Karolinska University Hospital between 1st January 2014 and 31st December 2015 were included. Data regarding the IHCA, patient characteristics, NEWS and 30days survival were drawn from the electronic patient records. Parameters included in NEWS were assessed up to 12hrs before the IHCA.  Differences in survival were assessed with adjusted logistic regression models and presented as Odds Ratios with 95% Confidence Intervals (OR, 95% CI) between patients with NEWS of 0-4 points (low) versus those with at least 5points (moderate) and high (7 points). Adjustments included hospital site, gender, co-morbidities, first rhythm and place of IHCA.

Results: In all, 358 patients suffered IHCA, of whom 109 (30%) survived at least 30 days. The 87 patients with medium NEWS had a minor chance and those 78 with high NEWS (22%) had a minimal chance of surviving IHCA compared to those with low NEWS (Adjusted OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.12-0.50 and OR 0.08, 95% C.I. 0.03-0.22, respectively).

Conclusion: The NEWS can be a probable proxy for estimating physiological reserve capacity when discussing prognosis with patients and relatives. But even more important, it stresses the need for better preventive strategies in IHCA.

Samuel BRUCHFELD, Therese DJARV (Stockholm, SWEDEN)
17:30 - 17:40 #7810 - OP024 Characteristics and Survival Outcomes of Adult Non-­traumatic Out-­of-­hospital Cardiac Arrests Between Patients With and Without Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation -­ A Prospective Community-­wide Evaluation.
OP024 Characteristics and Survival Outcomes of Adult Non-­traumatic Out-­of-­hospital Cardiac Arrests Between Patients With and Without Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation -­ A Prospective Community-­wide Evaluation.

Objectives: 


The outcome of patients after OHCA is poor. Return to spontaneous circulation (ROSC) dramatically decreases with the duration of CPR. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been proposed to assist CPR (ECPR) in OHCA. This study was to investigate the effects and characteristics of ECPR for adult non-­traumatic OHCA versus Non­ECPR on a community­wide basis.

Methods:


A prospective four­-year observational database collected from a community­wide OHCA web registry in an urban EMS (emergency medical services) was studied. The EMS ambulance teams were capable with advanced airway, intravenous (iv) fluid skills, basic and advanced life support and automated external defibrillator techniques. Outcomes included survival and cerebral performance category scale (CPC) at discharge. Adult non-traumatic OHCAs with and without ECPR were compared by regression analysis including factors of patient, pre­hospital and hospital characteristics and outcomes.


Results: 


Comparing OHCA receiving ECPR (n=79) to those without (n=959), ECPR group were younger (median age 56 vs 78, p<0.001) and had higher portion for men (89 vs 64%, p<0;001), witnessed arrest (Wit) (60.8 vs 32.5%, p<0.001), bystander CPR (BCPR) (53.2 vs 36.8%, p=0.005), initial shockable rhythms (SR) (74.6 vs 12.2%, p<0.001) and therapeutic hypothermia (TH) (22.8 vs 1.1%, p<0.001). They (EPCR vs non­ECPR) had no difference for prehospital time intervals (22.5 vs 23 min.), laryngeal mask airway treatment (55.7 vs 52.8%), EMS iv epinephrine (20.3 vs 15.5%), endotracheal intubation (6.3 vs 8.0%), prehospital ROSC (11.4 vs 6%, p=0.09), and ROSC upon hospital arrival (10.1 vs 8.5%). Outcomes were better in ECPR for discharged survival (41 vs 7%, p<0.001) and CPC 1or2 (20.8 vs 3.8%, p<0.001). After adjusting for Wit, BCPR, SR, TH, age and sex, both survival (adjusted odds ratio: 3.6 [95% CI: 2.0­-6.6]) and good CPC 1or2 (adjusted OR: 2.9 [95% CI: 1.2­-6.9]) were still significantly higher in ECPR.

Conclusions:

In current clinical practice for adult non­traumatic OHCA, ECPR tended to apply to patients of younger age, men, witnessed arrest, BCPR, and initially shockable rhythms regardless of positive ROSC upon hospital arrival, that can independently lead to higher survival and good neurological outcome compared to non­ECPR.

Patrick Chow-In KO (Taipei, TAIWAN), Matthew Huei-Ming MA, Yih­-Sharng CHEN
17:40 - 17:50 #7811 - OP025 Creative Signals Analysis of Media Technology for Recognizing Cardiac Arrest.
OP025 Creative Signals Analysis of Media Technology for Recognizing Cardiac Arrest.

Purpose:

Recognition of cardiac arrest with checking carotid pulse is less than a half correct by the public. Poor recognition of cardiac arrest or patient of agonizing situation delays early bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (BCPR) that should be critically provided in the first five minutes before emergency ambulance arrival. Globally we still lack of effective technology to assist better recognition of cardiac arrest to facilitate early BCPR and public access defibrillation (PAD). In this study, we aim to innovate a video signals analysis tool to assist recognition of cardiac arrest.

Method:

We designed an innovative skill algorithm for transforming and analyzing the signals of the video recordings filmed with mobile smartphone for part of human body. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) signals were evaluated in our skill algorithm. The time length for each video recording was fifteen seconds, which was filmed within the first five minutes after cardiac arrest witnessed in the intensive care unit. This signal analysis skill algorithm was applied on the video recordings of cardiac arrest patients and compared with that of normal volunteers.

Results:

We applied our skill algorithm analysis on video segments from twenty cardiac arrest patients (asystole for 18 cases, ventricular fibrillation for 2 cases) and twenty non-arrest volunteers (median heart rate 74/min, IQR: 65-88/min), matched in age and sex. We innovated a mathematic formula to calculate a value (we called it Slope Alfa) mainly from the cluster of FFT signals evaluated by the skill algorithm. The Slope Alfa value (Mean, [SD]) of cardiac arrest patients was significantly different from the value of non-arrest volunteers (0.14, [0.09] vs 1.96, [0.37], p<0.01). The results also indicated a tendency that for cardiac arrest patient the Slope Alfa would be less than 1.0.

Conclusions:

The skill algorithm we innovated for smartphone video signals analysis may successfully recognize patient after cardiac arrest. Further integration of this technology with mobile devices would provide the general public an easily accessible tool for cardiac arrest recognition and early chest compressions.

Patrick Chow-In KO, Yu-Chen LIN (Taipei, TAIWAN), Yuan-Hsiang LIN
17:50 - 18:00 #7878 - OP026 Anticoagulant treatment of acute venous thromboembolism in the Spanish Emergency Services: Does it change the attitude of the specialist physician in front of emergency physicians? EDITH Study.
OP026 Anticoagulant treatment of acute venous thromboembolism in the Spanish Emergency Services: Does it change the attitude of the specialist physician in front of emergency physicians? EDITH Study.

The Emergency deparments (ED) are very important, among other things,  because are the places where the diagnosis of venous thromboembolic disease  (VTE) that develops on an outpatient basis in most cases is established. It is also where doctors often start specific treatment for VTE and management is decided.

 

AIM

The principle aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic management by emergency physicians of patients diagnosed with VTE in Spanish ED. On the other hand, which is the process of change that has experienced this treatment during follow-up of the patients for six months.

 

METHODS

The EDITH study is a multicenter retrospective cohort study involving 50 Spanish emergency services belonging to fifteen regions .

We included consecutive patients who were diagnosed with VTE (-PE- pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis -DVT-) and were treated in emergency services between October 13 and December 14, 2014 were included in the study.

We were collected demographic variables, morbidity, risk factors for VTE in the moment of diagnosis , besides the diagnostic and therapeutic management in the emergency department and 6 months later.

 

RESULTS

A total of 775 patients with VTE were included in the study. 386 patients (49.8%) have PE, with or without DVT. The mean age of patients was 66 years. A 96.9% received anticoagulant therapy in the emergency department, of which 90.6% was LMWH. Only 30 patients in the emergency began acenocumarol and 7 patients received rivaroxaban. At hospital discharge, 65% of DVT and 33.6% of PE remained with LMWH monotherapy. At 1, 3 and 6 months after the stay in the emergency these percentages were maintained for DVT in 42.7, 30.6% and 17.8%, and for PE in 29.2%, 23.1% and 18.9%, respectively. These results are not exclusive to cancer patients but it also observed in all study population. A 73.1% of patients maintained anticoagulant therapy for at least 6 months (83.9% of PE and 61.2% of DVT).

 

CONCLUSION

A hospital management centered in the use  of  heparins and low transition to antivitamins K in patients with VTE was observed. Similarly, in the outpatient management  the introduction of oral anticoagulants was less than would be expected according to the guidelines of recommendation and a more prolonged duration of treatment it was observed.

Marta MERLO (MADRID, SPAIN), Pedro RUIZ-ARTACHO, Pascual PIÑERA, Coral SUERO, Albert ANTOLIN, José Ramón CASAL, Marta SÁNCHEZ-GONZÁLEZ, Pablo HERRERO, Sònia JIMENEZ
18:00 - 18:10 #8033 - OP027 Supporting isolated patients who test negative for the Ebola Virus Disease: a descriptive analysis of a novel equitable strategy for providing capped free healthcare in Sierra Leone.
OP027 Supporting isolated patients who test negative for the Ebola Virus Disease: a descriptive analysis of a novel equitable strategy for providing capped free healthcare in Sierra Leone.

Background

Due to the undifferentiated presentation of EVD during the recent outbreak in West Africa, some suspect patients were isolated who subsequently tested negative for the virus. In Sierra Leone, a country in which 69% of healthcare is funded (1) through out of pocket payments, these patients were effectively made destitute as a result of stigmatization and destruction of personal possessions. A number of factors highlighted a need to provide emergency care pathways for these patients. This paper describes the design and implementation of a novel initiative to provide a level of free healthcare to EVD negative patients at Connaught Hospital, the main government hospital in Sierra Leone.

 

Methods and Findings

Following review of existing global schemes and a consultation period, data was collected from a random sample of 50 patients requiring admission to Connaught Hospital, after presentation to the A&E, in order to estimate routine aggregate costs for investigations and medical treatment. This data was used to set a funding cap of 260,000 Leones (approx GBP £35), which was calculated to provide free investigations and treatment for 98% of cases. In total, free care was provided to ~300 eligible patients over a 6 month period. The major boundaries to implementation were absence of strong patient advocacy, and lack of hospital resources: both preventing patients receiving the full complement of prescribed services.

 

Conclusions

In resource-poor settings such as Sierra Leone, where free healthcare is provided in incremental packages alongside the existing out-of-pocket payment system, it is essential for successful implementation that new initiatives are embedded within existing systems. This paper presents a number of lessons learned in the design and implementation process of a novel capped free healthcare system and proposes an extended approach to provide on-going tertiary care to EVD survivors and other vulnerable groups in Sierra Leone. This work also proposes a generalizable mechanism to support patients and strengthen healthcare systems in the transitional phase that follows other such humanitarian crises.

 

Edward BLANDFORD, Hooi-Ling HARRISON (London, UK), Cecilia KAMARA, Samuel SEISAY, Daniel YOUKEE, Aminata ALFSATU
 
18:10
18:10-19:00
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OPEN
Opening Ceremony

Opening Ceremony

Moderators: Wilhelm BEHRINGER (Director) (Jena, GERMANY), Anton N. LAGGNER (Vienn, AUSTRIA)
18:10 - 18:15 Introduction. Wilhelm Behringer and Anton N. Laggner.
18:15 - 18:20 Music: the secret of Waltz. Klaus Laczika.
18:20 - 18:25 Greeting from EuSEM President. Barbara Hogan.
18:25 - 18:30 Greetings from AAEM/DGINA/SGNOR Presidents.
18:30 - 18:35 Greetings from the Health Minister. Sabine Oberhauser, Austrian Minister of Health.
18:35 - 18:40 Greetings from the City of Vienna. Sonja Wehsely, Executive City Councillor for Public Health, Social Affairs and Generations.
18:40 - 18:45 Greetings from the Austrian Physician Chamber. Thomas Szekeres, President of the Viennese Physician Chamber.
18:45 - 19:00 How to conduct the Emergency Department. Gernot Schulz.
             
Monday 03 October
Time Room A-FESTSAAL Room B-ZEREMONIENSAAL Room C-PRINZ EUGEN SAAL Room D-FORUM Room E-GEHEIME RATSTUBE Room F-RITTERSAAL Room G-GARTENSAAL Room OP-SCHATZKAMMERSAAL
 
08:30
08:30-09:00
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KS1
Keynote Session 1

Keynote Session 1

Moderator: Rick BODY (UK)
08:30 - 09:00 Clinical Decision Making in the Resus Room. Simon CARLEY (Manchester, UK)
             
 
09:10
09:10-10:40
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A21
State of the Art
Pre-hospital

State of the Art
Pre-hospital

Moderators: Abdo KHOURY (PH) (Besançon, FRANCE), Eric REVUE (Head of the ED and prehospital EMS) (Paris, FRANCE)
09:10 - 09:40 Capnography in Prehospital Medicine. Stefan TRENKLER (Košice, SLOVAKIA)
09:40 - 10:10 Prehospital Stroke Management. Eric REVUE (Head of the ED and prehospital EMS) (Paris, FRANCE)
10:10 - 10:40 The efficiency of helicopter emergency missions for STEMI: Time and intervention. Carmen Diana CIMPOESU (Prof univ. Head of ED) (IASI, ROMANIA)
09:10-10:40
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B21
Austria, Germany, Switzerland Invites
Politik und Qualifikation

Austria, Germany, Switzerland Invites
Politik und Qualifikation

Moderators: Robert SIEBER (SWITZERLAND), Christian WREDE (GERMANY)
09:10 - 09:40 Facharzt Notfallmedizin in der Schweiz: nächste Schritte. Robert SIEBER (SWITZERLAND)
09:40 - 10:10 Struktur der Notfallversorgung. Christian WREDE (GERMANY)
10:10 - 10:40 Entwicklung der notfallmedizinischen Supraspezialität in der Schweiz. Ulrich BÜRGI (SWITZERLAND)
09:10-10:40
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C21
Philosophy & Controversies
P&C Pain Management & Procedural Sedation

Philosophy & Controversies
P&C Pain Management & Procedural Sedation

Moderators: Philip EISENBURGER (Head) (Vienna, AUSTRIA), Christian HOHENSTEIN (PHYSICIAN) (JENA, GERMANY)
09:10 - 09:40 The painful following of clinical guidelines - does implementation of clinical guidelines improve pain management in the ED? Jim DUCHARME (Mississauga, CANADA)
09:40 - 10:10 Intubation of the not fastened patient for procedural sedation - the safer option? Christian HOHENSTEIN (PHYSICIAN) (JENA, GERMANY)
10:10 - 10:40 Alleviating symptoms and generating them at the same time - Ketamine for agitation and delirium? Andy NEILL (IRELAND)
09:10-10:40
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D21
EUSEM meets ERC

EUSEM meets ERC

Moderators: Maaret CASTREN (HELSINKI, FINLAND), Marc SABBE (Medical staff member) (Leuven, BELGIUM)
09:10 - 09:40 Resuscitation academy. Maaret CASTREN (HELSINKI, FINLAND)
09:40 - 10:10 A new way to produce and use guidelines. Koen MONSIEURS (Director) (Antwerp, BELGIUM)
10:10 - 10:40 ERC Guidelines for traumatic cardiac arrest: Why was the approach changed. Anatolij TRUHLAR (Hradec Králové, CZECH REPUBLIC)
09:10-10:40
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E21
Research
Geriatric

Research
Geriatric

Moderators: Jay BANERJEE (Leicester, UK), Abdelouahab BELLOU (BOSTON, USA)
09:10 - 09:40 The Boarding Patients in the ED: Are Older Patients the Major Cause ? Abdelouahab BELLOU (BOSTON, USA)
09:40 - 10:10 Assessing for Cognitive Impairment in Older Patients: Results of the UK Clinical Audit. Jay BANERJEE (Leicester, UK)
10:10 - 10:40 Pre-Hospital Initiatives to Decrease the Number of Older Patient ED visits. James WALLACE (Consultant in Emergency Medicine) (Warrington, UK)
09:10-10:40
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F21
YEMD
Developing your portfolio career

YEMD
Developing your portfolio career

Moderators: Blair GRAHAM (Research Fellow) (Plymouth, UK), Amy HUGHES (Manchester, UK)
09:10 - 09:40 A career in Emergency, Pre Hospital, Humanitarian and Disaster Medicine. Amy HUGHES (Manchester, UK)
09:40 - 10:10 Over and above service provision: pathways to developing portfolio interests as a trainee. Blair GRAHAM (Research Fellow) (Plymouth, UK)
10:10 - 10:40 Adventure and Education in a University Emergency Department and in the Himalayas. Monika BRODMANN MAEDER (Senior Consultant, Head of Education and Mountain Emergency Medicine) (Bern, SWITZERLAND)
09:10-10:40
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G21
Paediatric track
Hot Topics

Paediatric track
Hot Topics

Moderators: Javier BENITO FERNANDEZ (Getxo - Vizcaya, SPAIN), Silvia BRESSAN (Padova, ITALY)
09:10 - 09:40 Set 1 - In situ simulation in the PED: pros and cons. Marco DAVERIO (Padova, ITALY)
HFNC use - steps towards evidence based practice.
09:40 - 10:10 Set 2 – Point of care US: tips and trick for the PED. Mark HADEN (London, UK)
Telemedicine: new frontiers and barriers
10:10 - 10:40 Set 3 – High-tech PEM: how technology can make your life easier. Johan SIEBERT (Genève, SWITZERLAND)
09:10-10:40
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OP21
Oral Papers 21

Oral Papers 21

Moderators: Kim GEYBELS (Emergency and prehospital physician) (Overpelt, BELGIUM), John HOLCOMB (USA)
09:10 - 09:20 #7469 - OP028 The Physiology component of Trauma Triage Tool has the highest PPV.
The Physiology component of Trauma Triage Tool has the highest PPV.

Introduction: Injuries are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in both developing and industrialized regions 1.  Injury severity scores are simply a way to describe and quantify the severity of traumatic injury and also provide some sense of the probability of survival of the victims2. The Injury Severity Score (ISS) is a widely accepted method of measuring severity of traumatic injury 3.This study aims at evaluating the component of trauma triage tool with highest positive predictive value to identify major trauma patients.

Objective:

 

To determine the component of pre-hospital tool (Trauma Triage tool) with highest positive predictive value?

 

 

Methodology:

 

 A Retrospective database analysis of Major trauma patients presenting to QEHB during the period January 2013 to January 2014 was performed. All Major trauma patients (TTT positive) presenting to QEHB during this period were included.  The patients who were TTT Negative were excluded.

 

Data were coded and entered on Excel file and statistical analysis was done using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 16.0. Descriptive analysis was conducted to determine the sensitivity and specificity of pre- hospital TTT and each of its components (vital signs, anatomy, injury mechanism and special conditions). Pearson Chi- Square test, Fisher’s exact test and Independent Student's t- test were used to evaluate the association between the severity of injury and certain variables: Mechanism of injury, Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) level and patient's age.

 

 

 

Results:

There were 694 trauma patients presented during study period. Only 597 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. The majority of our sample was male (70.7%), with a mean age of 53 years. About one third of these patients had involved in RTCs. Approximately 60 % of the study group had been alerted in as major trauma cases.

Out of the 597 trauma patients, 316 patients were identified as a major trauma cases (true positive cases) that had an estimated ISS more than 15 (Positive Predictive Value (PPV) = 0.529 at 95% CI 0.49, 0.57; p= 0.000).

The Trauma Triage Tool consists of four components: Vital signs, Anatomy, Mechanism of injury and Special conditions. The Physiology component had the highest PPV of 0.79 at 95% CI 0.73, 0.85, which was followed by the Mechanism of injury with PPV equals 0.618 at 95% CI 0.55, 0.69, then the Anatomy component (PPV= 0.523 at 95% CI 0.46, 0.69), then the Special conditions components which had PPV of 0.448 at 95% CI 0.39, 0.51.

 

Conclusion:

Within the pre-hospital management of seriously injured trauma victims the accuracy of the field triage is of utmost importance. The clinicians significantly depend upon the pre hospital information to activate the resources.  Hence greater the PPV of TTT better the trauma team remix can be planned.

Our results clearly suggest the correlation of abnormal physiological parameters with high probability of ISS>15. Even when combined with other components of the TTT the PPV of the physiological component remains the highest.

M Azam MAJEED (Birmingham, UK), M Saif REHMAN, Asif NAVEED, Shereen NABIL
09:20 - 09:30 #7049 - OP029 Compared analysis of London, Boston and Paris attacks : learning from each other to become stronger.
OP029 Compared analysis of London, Boston and Paris attacks : learning from each other to become stronger.

Background

In 2005, 2013 and 2015 respectively, London, Boston and Paris (November events for this study) were targeted by major terrorist attacks. Despite their differences these attacks caused many common difficulties and issues for rescue organizations in countries with mass casualty plans that differ widely. The aim of the present study was to analyze and compare the specific responses of each city to a similar kind of crisis.


Participants and methods

We used publications and official reports about the London bombings [1], Boston bombings [2] and Paris terrorist attacks [3,4]. We detailed, when available, response timelines for each attack, the resources committed, the pre-hospital organization and hospital dispatch. 


Results

In London, 4 suicide-bomb attacks (3 aboard London Underground trains and 1 on a double-decker bus) killed 52 civilians and injured over 700 more. In Boston, 2 pressure cooker bombs placed near the finish line of the Boston marathon killed 3 civilians and injured 264 more. In Paris, suicide bomb attacks, mass shooting and hostage taking killed 130 civilians, including 89 on one closed site of mass shooting, and injured over 413 more. Three different dispatch strategies were used: proximity dispatching in London, equal pre-defined dispatching in Boston and regional partially medical dispatching in Paris. If not already activated, national crisis management facility was operational in less than 40 minutes. 7 to 17 hospitals were involved in caring the victims. In all cities, evacuation of the victims was achieved in less than about 6 hours after the beginning of the attack.

 

 

Discussion

Several key points can be extracted from the three responses. A pre-defined idea of the capacities of each hospital as well as a real-time assessment proved extremely helpful. A unique dispatch and control center allows a good overview of the destination of the patients. Dedicated communication channels between all the critical national infrastructures allow swifter alert of all the involved services. Good communication is always a major issue, particularly in areas where networks are saturated, switched off, degraded or destroyed. When the network is on, giving the right information to the right persons at the right time is both vital but very difficult. Mass casualties require material, vehicles and personnel in numbers that need to be organized in advance if we want to respond without delay. Dealing with the uncertainty of the situations and reacting quickly requires response systems that are simple and robust and that favor the autonomy of the operational teams. Finally, drills, exercising, and repeating procedures again and again are absolutely crucial if we are to be agile and effective in our responses. 

 

1. Report of the Official Account of the Bombings in London on the 7th July 2005

2. After Action Report for the Response to the 2013 Boston Marathon Bombings, dec 2014

3. Hirsch M et al., The medical response to multisite terrorist attacks in Paris, Lancet 2015 Dec 19;386(10012):2535-86.

4. Lesaffre X, Attacks on Paris: what can we learn, oral presentation

Sophie MONTAGNON, Xavier LESAFFRE (Paris), Daniel JOST, Stéphane BOIZAT, Olivier BON, Michel BIGNAND, Patrick PLAISANCE, Jean-Pierre TOURTIER
09:30 - 09:40 #7126 - OP030 Major incident triage: the civilian validation of the Modified Physiological Triage Tool (MPTT).
OP030 Major incident triage: the civilian validation of the Modified Physiological Triage Tool (MPTT).

Introduction:

Triage, the process of categorising patients based on clinical acuity, is a key principle in the effective management of a major incident (MI).  There are at least three different triage systems in use worldwide, and previous attempts to validate them have demonstrated limited performance. 

Using a military cohort and regression analysis, the Modified Physiological Triage Tool (MPTT) was developed and when compared to existing triage methods, demonstrated an improved performance at predicting need for life-saving intervention and yielded the lowest rate of under-triage (30.1%).  Within the adult civilian population, where blunt trauma predominates and there is an older population, no such work has been undertaken to develop an improved system of triage.

The purpose of this study was to perform a comparative analysis and initial validation of the MPTT within a civilian environment. 

Methods:

A retrospective review of the Trauma Audit Research Network (TARN) database was performed for all adult patients (>18 years) presenting to a UK Emergency Department (ED) between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2014. Patients were defined as Gold Standard Priority One if they had received one or more life-saving interventions from a previously defined list.  Only patients with complete physiological data and who received treatment at a single hospital were included in the analysis.

Using first recorded physiological data (HR/RR/GCS/SBP), patients were categorised as Priority One or Not Priority One by the newly derived MPTT (12 > RR < 22, HR > 100, GCS < 14) and existing major incident triage tools (START - ST, CAREFLIGHT - CF, Modified Military Sieve – MMS and Triage Sieve – TS). Performance characteristics of all triage tools were evaluated using sensitivity, specificity and AUROC, and rates of over and under-triage were compared. AUROC were compared for triage tools with similar performance.

Results:

The TARN registry held records for 218,453 adult patients during the study period, of which 129,647 (59.3%) had complete data and were included in the analysis.  55% of patients were male, with a median age of 61 (range 18-111).  25,452 patients (19.6%) were defined as Priority One, with a median ISS of 9.  Blunt trauma predominated (96.5%), with falls < 2m the most common injury mechanism (53.9%).

The MPTT outperformed all existing triage methods with the highest sensitivity (58.1%) and demonstrated an absolute reduction in under-triage of 44.5% when compared to the existing MIMMS Triage Sieve.  With an AUROC increase of 1.3, ROC comparison demonstrated significance between the MPTT and MMS (c2 = 83.91, p < 0.001), statistically supporting the use of the MPTT.


Conclusion:

This study has defined the performance of the MPTT (a tool derived using a military cohort) in a civilian environment, where it has been shown to outperform all existing MI triage systems in its ability to predict need for life-saving intervention.  As a result of this validation, its use within a civilian major incident context is recommended.

 

 

Jason SMITH, James VASSALLO (Plymouth, UK)
09:40 - 09:50 #7176 - OP031 Additional value of d-dimer and the disseminated intravascular coagulation score in predicting outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
OP031 Additional value of d-dimer and the disseminated intravascular coagulation score in predicting outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

Background: Chances of survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients decrease with increasing duration of hypoperfusion. The pathophysiological changes after prolonged resuscitation efforts and consecutive hypoperfusion appears comparable to those in severe sepsis leading to post-resuscitation coagulopathy. The occurrence of overt disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is associated with poor outcomes and high mortality risk in various medical conditions. Similarly, the occurrence of DIC in cardiac arrest patients seems to be associated with an unfavorable prognosis. 

Objective: Recent data suggest an overt DIC rate of 33% in OHCA patients with sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The current study determined the prevalence of overt DIC, its association with outcome, and the predictive value of d-dimer in an Austrian collective of OHCA patients.

Methods: All patients with available coagulation parameters from 2006-2014 were extracted from a prospectively compiled OHCA registry. Primary outcome was the prevalence of overt DIC. Binominal logistic regression analysis was applied to ascertain predictors of overt DIC, 30-day mortality and neurologic outcome. The discrimination of the fitted logistic models was assessed using the area under the receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve.

Results: Out of 1179 OHCA patients, coagulation parameters were available in 410 (72% male; 57years, 48-69). The rate of overt DIC was 10% (95%CI, 7-13; n=39) overall and 7% (95%CI, 5-10; n=30) in the sustained ROSC subgroup. The odds ratio for 30-day mortality (46%, 95%CI 41-51; n=188) increased with the DIC score and was 9.6 (crude OR; 95%CI, 3.7-25) in patients with overt DIC on admission (n=39). The regression model including d-dimer, lactate levels, no-flow interval and initial rhythm (χ2(4)=125.1; p<0.001; HLT=0.20) best predicted 30-day mortality (R2= 0.58); The inclusion of d-dimer levels into the model significantly increased the area under the ROC curve from 0.78 (95%CI, 0.73-0.85) to 0.90 (95%CI, 0.85-0.94; p=0.001).

Conclusion: The current study identified increasing no-flow intervals (indicating the extent of non-perfusion), a non-shockable initial heart rhythm and elevated lactate levels (indicating the magnitude of tissue hypoxia) as the main predictors of overt DIC patterns in OHCA. The inclusion of d-dimer levels into a prediction model, however, improved its accuracy, and d-dimer levels may serve as an additional, independent surrogate parameter to assess outcome in OHCA.

 

Nina BUCHTELE (Vienna, AUSTRIA), Bernd JILMA, Andreas SCHOBER, Christian SCHOERGENHOFER, Fritz STERZ, Michael SCHWAMEIS
09:50 - 10:00 #7419 - OP032 Ultrasound-Guided Reduction of Distal Radius Fractures.
Ultrasound-Guided Reduction of Distal Radius Fractures.

Introduction: Distal radius fractures are a common traumatic injury, particularly in the elderly population. In the present study we examined the effectiveness of ultrasound guidance in the reduction of distal radius fractures in adult patients presenting to emergency department (ED). Methods: In this prospective case control study, eligible patients were adults older than 18 years who presented to the ED with distal radius fractures. 130 consecutive patient consisted of two group of Sixty-Five patients were prospectively enrolled for around 1 years. The first group underwent ultrasound-guided reduction and the second (control group) underwent blind reduction. All procedures were performed by two trained emergency residents under supervision of senior emergency physicians. Results: Baseline characteristics between two groups were similar. The rate of repeat reduction was reduced in the ultrasound group (9.2% vs 24.6%; P = .019). The post reduction radiographic indices were similar between the two groups, although the ultrasound group had improved volar tilt (mean, 7.6° vs 3.7°; P = .000). The operative rate was reduced in the ultrasound groups (10.8% vs 27.7%; P = .014). Conclusion: Ultrasound guidance is effective and recommended for routine use in the reduction of distal radius fractures

Anita SABZGHABAEI (TEHRAN, IRAN, ISLAMIC REPUBLIC), Majid SHOJAEE, Saeed HASANPOOUR, Taghian SAHAR
10:00 - 10:10 #7583 - OP033 Willingness to work of hospital staff in disasters, a national survey of the fight or flight study group.
OP033 Willingness to work of hospital staff in disasters, a national survey of the fight or flight study group.

Objectives: To evaluate the willingness to work of hospital staff and factors promoting it  in different mass casualty settings.

Background: When disaster strikes, getting care to the victims is at the top of everyone's attention. But who will provide that care? A part of the hospital personnel will be absent as they are inflicted in the incident whereas the management expects that the rest deploys a higher engagement to cope with the surge. However, care for inflicted family and fear of becoming a secondary victim could prevent people to go to work.

Material and methods:

4 groups (physicians, nurses, administration and supportive services) in Belgian hospitals were presented an online questionnaire checking for demographics, knowledge of and intention to work in 11 potential MCI disaster scenarios.

Results:

The Ebola outbreak, a train derailment with toxic release and the Paris / Brussels attacks raised national awareness which allowed us to score in 18 hospitals after the 7 hospital pilot. Ten more are ready to join giving a nationwide coverage.

Preliminary results reveal an overall highest response rate in the physician group where more than 1/3 works unconditionally. The supportive services score second best (27%) followed by the nurses (22%) and administration (21%). Highest response rate in all groups is found in seasonal influenza epidemics (54% works unconditionally). Ebola has the lowest rate of unconditional response (13%). Incidents where people will not respond to work, even with the risk of losing their job, are Ebola and nuclear incidents (9.5% and 8.8% respectively).  Since the West African Ebola outbreak, there is a clear downwards trend in willingness to work in these circumstances.

The majority of personnel will work under conditions. Factors that convince people to respond are in order of importance: availability of appropriate personal protective equipment, free availability of preventive medication or antidotes, insurance that family is safe, regular feedback on the evolution of the incident, previous training and communication channels with the family.

Conclusion:

Hospital managers should be aware that just a part of their personnel would come to work unconditionally in case of a disaster. Local evaluation can help identifying promoting measures to maximize response.

Luc MORTELMANS (ANTWERP, BELGIUM), Christel HENDRICKX, Marc SABBE
10:10 - 10:20 #7626 - OP034 A REFUGEE CAMP IN THE CENTER OF EUROPE: CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ASYLUM SEEKERS IN BRUSSELS IN SEPTEMBER 2015.
A REFUGEE CAMP IN THE CENTER OF EUROPE: CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ASYLUM SEEKERS IN BRUSSELS IN SEPTEMBER 2015.

Background and purpose

In the summer of 2015, the exodus of Syrian war refugees and saturation of refugee camps in neighbouring countries led to the influx of many asylum-seekers in some European countries, including Belgium.

This study aims to document demographics of asylum-seekers arriving in a refugee camp in Brussels in September 2015 and to describe diagnoses and comorbidities of patients presenting to a Field Hospital.

The study hypothesis is that among asylum-seekers in a huddled refugee camp – even in a well-developed country with all medical facilities – respiratory, digestive and other medical problems typical of refugee camps wherever in the world, will emerge soon.

Patients and methods

Using a cross-sectional observational study design, physicians of Médecins du Monde prospectively registered age, gender, origin, medical complaints and diagnoses of all patients presenting to an erected Field Hospital in Brussels in September 2015. Diagnoses were post-hoc categorised according to the International Classification of Diseases. Of 4037 patients examined, 3907 were included and analysed for this study: 86% were male, median age was 28 years (range 0-93;IQR 12), and patients came from 63 different countries, mostly from Iraq (52%), Syria (20%), Morocco (10%), Afghanistan (3%), and Palestine (3%). Some 1% were stateless.

Results

The most common primary diagnoses were upper respiratory tract infections (31%), dental caries (8%), skin infections (8%), gastroenteritis (7%), skin wounds and burns (6%), musculoskeletal disorders (6%), and accidental trauma (6%). Mental disorders were present in 2%. One per cent was victim of intentional violence in the country of origin, or during the journey to Brussels. Two women had just delivered and five new-born babies attended, of which one had to be hospitalised for bronchiolitis with severe dyspnoea.

When classified, the most frequent diagnosis categories were respiratory disorders (36%), far ahead of injury (12%), dental (10%), skin (9%), digestive (8%), and musculoskeletal diagnoses (6%).

Comorbidities consisted mainly of arterial hypertension and diabetes. Referrals were organised for 11% patients to dentists (5%), to Emergency Departments (3%), to psychotherapists (2%), and to new-born care (1%).

Features of infection were found in 49% of patients, with an even higher proportion (63%) in children younger than 5. A multiple logistic regression analysis indicates that the risk of being infected is significantly higher for asylum-seekers from Syria and Iraq, and for children.

Conclusions

Asylum seekers arriving in a refugee camp in Brussels after a long and hazardous journey suffer mostly from respiratory, dental, skin and digestive diseases, and one of seven is injured. Half of this population shows features of infection; with asylum-seekers from Syria and Iraq, and children being most vulnerable, urging even developed countries to take measures to prevent the spread of infections. Early shelter, overcrowding reduction, adequate sanitary facilities, and accessible healthcare may avoid short and long term complications, leading to higher healthcare expenditure for the hosting population.

These findings should be anticipated when composing Emergency Medical Teams and Interagency Emergency Health Kits to be used in a Field Hospital, even in a Western European country.

Gerlant VAN BERLAER (BRUSSELS, BELGIUM), Francisca BOHLE CARBONELL, Sofie MANANTSOA, Xavier DE BÉTHUNE, Ronald BUYL, Michel DEBACKER, Ives HUBLOUE
10:20 - 10:30 #7632 - OP035 COMORBIDITIES AND DIAGNOSES IN NORTHERN SYRIAN CHILDREN AFTER FOUR YEARS OF CIVIL WAR.
OP035 COMORBIDITIES AND DIAGNOSES IN NORTHERN SYRIAN CHILDREN AFTER FOUR YEARS OF CIVIL WAR.

Background and purpose

The civil war that started in Syria since 2011, led to one of the most complex humanitarian emergencies in history. This ongoing disaster, in which warring parties deliberately target healthcare infrastructure and services, has detrimental consequences affecting the health of children as one of the most vulnerable populations.

The purpose of this study is to document the medical threats, comorbidities, diagnoses and disease categories in Syrian children after four years of conflict, and estimate the need for relief efforts needed to provide efficient medical care to Syrian children.

Patients and Methods

A cross sectional observational sample study was conducted in May 2015. By means of a prospectively designed medical registry, Qatar Red Crescent healthcare workers especially trained for this study, collected demographic information, comorbidities, and diagnoses in children visited home by home and in internally displaced persons camps in four Syrian governorates. Diagnoses were post-hoc categorised according to the ICD-10 classification.

Of 1080 filled-out records, 1001 were complete and included in this study. Children originated from Aleppo (41%), Idleb (36%), Hamah (15%) and Lattakia (8%). Median age was 6 years (0-15;IQR 3-11), 61% were boys.

Results

Most primary acute diagnoses in examined children were upper respiratory tract infections (14%), lower respiratory tract infections (9%), gastroenteritis (8%), suspected meningitis (7%), asthma (6%), convulsions (6%), eye infection (5%), clinical anaemia (5%), and skin infection (5%). Four per cent showed signs of malnutrition, some children had been victim of injury (3%) or violence (1%), and 2% of children suffered from a mental disorder.

When categorised according to ICD-10, most children suffered from respiratory (29%), neurological (19%), digestive (17%), eye (5%) or skin (5%) diseases, 4% was injured, and 2% suffered from a mental disorder. Overall, 55% of patients had features of infectious diseases.

Most common chronical illnesses were mental health diseases (25%), epilepsy (11%), malnutrition related conditions (5%), and flaccid paralysis (4%).

Statistical analysis indicates that the risk for children to suffer from infectious diseases is significantly higher when they reside in Aleppo or Idleb. The risk of being injured is significantly higher in Aleppo, while intentional violence is most occurring in Lattakia. Mental problems are more prominent in Hamah. These problems are not linked to gender or age, except for infectious risks: younger children are more at risk to have an incomplete vaccination state, and suffer more from preventable dangerous infections.

Conclusions

After years of civil war, more than half the children in Northern Syria suffer from infections, mostly from respiratory, neurological and digestive origin, while 4% is injured or victim of dirty weapons.

Substandard paediatric healthcare circumstances and worsening vaccination state put Syrian children at risk for serious infections, outbreaks and morbidity, and should be urgently addressed by humanitarian relief efforts.

An immediate coordinated and global action is needed to deal with this complex humanitarian emergency, and to prevent worsening of health threats for children in Syria.

Gerlant VAN BERLAER (BRUSSELS, BELGIUM), Abdallah Mohamed ELSAFTI, Mohamed AL-SAFADI, Michel DEBACKER, Ronald BUYL, Atef REDWAN, Ives HUBLOUE
10:30 - 10:40 #7635 - OP036 CHILDREN IN THE SYRIAN CIVIL WAR: IMPACT OF ON-GOING VIOLENCE ON THEIR SOCIAL, EDUCATIONAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH STATE.
CHILDREN IN THE SYRIAN CIVIL WAR: IMPACT OF ON-GOING VIOLENCE ON THEIR SOCIAL, EDUCATIONAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH STATE.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE

The Syrian civil war since 2011 led to one of the most complex humanitarian emergencies in history. This protracted disaster has but negative aspects, especially on children.

Purpose of this study is to document the impact on the social, educational and public health state of Syrian children.

 

PATIENTS AND METHODS

A cross sectional observational sample study was conducted in May 2015. Healthcare workers, especially trained for this study, visited families home by home with a prospectively designed questionnaire in four Northern Syrian governorates.

Of 1080 filled-out questionnaires, 1001 were complete and included in this study. Children originated from Aleppo (41%), Idleb (36%), Hamah (15%) and Lattakia (8%). Median age was 6 years (0-15;IQR 3-11), 61% were boys.

 

RESULTS

Almost 20% of children were Internally Displaced Persons. The father was deceased or missing in respectively 5% and 4%, and similarly for the mother in 2% and 3% of the children. Almost 15% had no access to safe drinking water, and 23% could not access appropriate sanitation. About 16% had insufficient access to nutrition, and almost 27% suffered from malnutrition. Access to specific mother and child healthcare providers was disturbed in 64%, and vaccination state was inadequate in 72%. More than half of all school-aged children had no access to education at the time of the study.

Statistical analysis indicates that the risk for children to have unmet depends mainly on the governorate in which they reside. Most affected governorates are Idleb and Lattakia for water, sanitation, education, and healthcare; and Aleppo for missing vaccines. These problems are not linked to gender or age, except for the vaccination state: the smaller the children, the more they are at risk to have an incomplete vaccination state.

 

CONCLUSIONS

After four years of civil war in Syria, many children have lost their parents, are being displaced, and live in substandard life quality circumstances. Most children miss education, undermining their own future and that of the country. Limited access to water, sanitation, and to regular and healthy food, together with increasing malnutrition rates, worsening of the immunisation state and accessibility to specific healthcare facilities add up to the factors that put Syrian children at risk for increased morbidity and mortality.

Urgent coordinated and global action is needed to deal with this complex humanitarian emergency, and to prevent worsening of social, educational and public health threats for children in Syria.

Abdallah ELSAFTI ELSAEIDY, M.D., M.SC (Doha, QATAR), Garlant GERLANT VAN BERLAER, M.D., M.SC, Mohammad AL SAFADI, M.D., Michel DEBACKER, M.D., Ronald BUYL, PH.D., Atef REDWAN, M.D., PH.D., Ives HUBLOUE, M.D., PH.D.
 
11:10
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A22
State of the Art
Resuscitation

State of the Art
Resuscitation

Moderators: Lance BECKER (USA), Wilhelm BEHRINGER (Director) (Jena, GERMANY)
11:10 - 11:40 How to get the patient back after cardiac arrest. Gavin D. PERKINS (UK)
11:40 - 12:10 How to keep the patient alive after sucessful resuscitation. Lance BECKER (USA)
12:10 - 12:40 Cardiac Arrest in special circumstances. Koen MONSIEURS (Director) (Antwerp, BELGIUM)
11:10-12:40
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B22
Austria, Germany, Switzerland Invites
Ausbildung Notfallpflege innerklinisch

Austria, Germany, Switzerland Invites
Ausbildung Notfallpflege innerklinisch

Moderators: Michael LAMP (AUSTRIA), Mareen MACHNER (GERMANY)
11:10 - 11:40 Curriculum Notfallpflege Österreich. Michael LAMP (AUSTRIA)
11:40 - 12:10 Curriculum in der Schweiz. Christian ERNST (SWITZERLAND)
12:10 - 12:40 Curriculum in Deutschland. Mareen MACHNER (GERMANY)
11:10-12:40
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C22
Philosophy & Controversies
P&C Pre-hospital

Philosophy & Controversies
P&C Pre-hospital

Moderators: Christoph REDELSTEINER (Prof) (Wien, AUSTRIA), Stefan TRENKLER (Košice, SLOVAKIA)
11:10 - 11:40 Prehospital staff controversy: Physicians, Nurses, Paramedics. Carmen Diana CIMPOESU (Prof univ. Head of ED) (IASI, ROMANIA)
11:40 - 12:10 Relation between electrical and mechanical myocardial activity during cardiac arrest. Roman SKULEC (KLADNO, CZECH REPUBLIC)
12:10 - 12:40 New challenges: Telemedicine. Eric REVUE (Head of the ED and prehospital EMS) (Paris, FRANCE)
11:10-12:40
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D22
Administration Management
Resilience - EM more than just medicine? Leadership, resilience & career satisfaction - the how to guide!

Administration Management
Resilience - EM more than just medicine? Leadership, resilience & career satisfaction - the how to guide!

Moderators: Taj HASSAN (President RCEM) (London, UK), Marc SABBE (Medical staff member) (Leuven, BELGIUM)
Speakers: Colin GRAHAM (Hong Kong, HONG KONG), Taj HASSAN (President RCEM) (London, UK), John HEYWORTH (UK), Marc SABBE (Medical staff member) (Leuven, BELGIUM)
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E22
State of the art
Psychosocial Emergencies

State of the art
Psychosocial Emergencies

Moderators: Gregor PROSEN (MARIBOR, SLOVENIA), Karin RHODES (USA)
11:10 - 11:40 Screening and intervention for intimate partner violence. Karin RHODES (USA)
11:40 - 12:10 The role of ED in Mental Health Emergencies. Anne HICKS (Consultant in Emergency Medicine) (Plymouth, UK)
12:10 - 12:40 Hypnosis and therapeutic communication at the emergency department. Franck VERSCHUREN (Bruxelles, BELGIUM)
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F22
YEMD
Best articles of the year

YEMD
Best articles of the year

Moderators: Blair GRAHAM (Research Fellow) (Plymouth, UK), Jennifer TRUCHOT (Paris, FRANCE)
Speakers: Benjamin BLOOM (London, UK), Yonathan FREUND (Paris, FRANCE), Basak YILMAZ (Ankara, TURKEY)
11:10-12:40
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G22
Paediatric track
Safety in the Emergency Department

Paediatric track
Safety in the Emergency Department

Moderators: Javier BENITO FERNANDEZ (Getxo - Vizcaya, SPAIN), Santiago MINTEGUI (Barakaldo, SPAIN)
11:10 - 11:30 What is meant by safety in the ED, how to measure and to improve the care of children. Javier BENITO FERNANDEZ (Getxo - Vizcaya, SPAIN)
11:30 - 11:50 Lessons learned from diversity in PEM - Diversity in PEM in Europe, lessons learned from 100.000 children in 5 ED’s. Dorine BORENSZTAJN (Pediatrician) (Rotterdam, THE NETHERLANDS)
11:50 - 12:10 Lessons learned from diversity in PEM - Antibiotic use in febrile children in paediatric emergency care – variability among Europe. Rianne OOSTENBRINK (pediatrician) (Rotterdam, THE NETHERLANDS)
12:10 - 12:30 Lessons learned from diversity in PEM - Variability in pediatric poisoning. Santiago MINTEGUI (Barakaldo, SPAIN)
12:30 - 12:40 Paediatric abstracts. Henriette MOLL (paediatrician) (rotterdam, THE NETHERLANDS)
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OP22
Oral Papers 22

Oral Papers 22

Moderators: Hayette MOUSSAOUI (Emergency Physician) (London, UK), Inger SONDERGAARD (PHYSICIAN) (ALLEROED, DENMARK)
11:10 - 12:40 #6398 - OP037 Impaired cognition is associated with adverse outcomes in older patients presenting to the emergency department; the APOP study.
Impaired cognition is associated with adverse outcomes in older patients presenting to the emergency department; the APOP study.

Background: The number of emergency department (ED) visits by the elderly is increasing. Cognitive impairment is a risk factor for functional decline and mortality but its assessment takes too much time in older patients in the Emergency Department. Information about cognition at arrival might be of great value to assist clinicians in making treatment decisions, to detect risk of delirium in an early phase and to reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes by implementing targeted interventions. Therefore, the aim was to investigate if the relatively brief Six-Item-Cognitive-Impairment-Test (6-CIT) is an independent predictor of functional decline and mortality, a pre-requisite to be used as a screening-tool in the acute setting.

 

Methods: A multicentre prospective observational follow-up study was conducted in patients aged 70-years or older, visiting the ED of the Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC) and Alrijne Hospital in the Netherlands. At baseline, the Six Item-Cognitive-Impairment-Test (6CIT) and functional status, as assessed with the Katz-ADL, was assessed. Cognitive impairment was defined as a 6CIT score ≥11. Multivariable logistic regression analysis with the primary outcomes mortality and functional decline (composite endpoint adverse outcome), at three and twelve months (LUMC only) after the ED visit was used.


Results: 1632 patients were included (LUMC n=751, Alrijne n=881). 326 patients (21.4%) had cognitive impairment. Compared to normal cognition, cognitive impairment is associated with increased risk of adverse health outcomes, independent of age, sex, education and triage urgency, with corrected odds ratios of 1.87 (95%CI:1.42-2.46) at three months. Patients with impaired cognition had increased risk of mortality after three and twelve months (HR 2.27(95%CI1.54-3.34)).


Conclusion
Cognitive impairment, measured with the 2-3 minute 6CIT, is independently associated with adverse health outcomes in older ED patients.

Jacinta LUCKE (LEIDEN, THE NETHERLANDS), Jelle DE GELDER, Bas DE GROOT, Christian HERINGHAUS, Jaap FOGTELOO, Sander ANTEN, Gerard-Jan BLAUW, Simon MOOIJAART
11:10 - 12:40 #6419 - OP038 Clinical characteristics and outcome of nonagenarians and centenarians in a medical ICU.
Clinical characteristics and outcome of nonagenarians and centenarians in a medical ICU.

Background:

As a result of demographic transition, the proportion of « very elderly » (≥ 90 years) patients is increasing worldwide and more of these patients are nowadays admitted to intensive care units (ICU). Among physicians the discussion about appropriateness of these ICU admissions still remains controversial. mostly due to questionable outcome, limited ressources and costs. The aim of the study was to determine and evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcome in a very old population admitted to a medical ICU in an urban hospital.

Methods:  

We present here a retrospective and monocentric study. We reviewed the charts of all patients (≥ 90 years) admitted to a medical ICU between 2005 and 2015. We collected epidemiological, clinical and biological parameters and all therapeutic measures during the ICU stay. A long-term survival follow-up was also performed. 185 patients were included for statistical analysis.

Results:

A total of 185 patients were included, which represented 1.8% of admissions to the ICU during this 10 year period. The mean age was 92.7 +/- 2.2 years, the sex ratio was 0.34. Most of patients (39%) were admitted from the emergency department (ED) and 34% directly from pre-hospital care (EMS). The mean Charlson comorbidity score was 7.6 (95% CI: [7.3-7.8]) and the mean McCabe score was 1.36 (95% CI: [1.28-1.43]). The admission diagnosis in the ICU was mainly respiratory distress (48%), septic shock (13%), coma (11%) and cardiac arrest (10%). The average SAPS-II score within 24 hours of ICU admission was 58.1+/-23.2. 20% of these patients suffered of previous dementia. 50% of patients required support by mechanical ventilation (mean duration 7.1 days) and 6% of patients received renal replacement therapy. ICU and hospital mortality rates were 40% and 46% respectively. Overall survival at three months after hospital discharge was 48%. For 34% of these patients, a limitation of active treatment was decided (on average after two days of stay). For 66% there was no justification for limiting care because of a well-established treatment plan (with family, GP, ICU team).

Conclusion:

The proportion of elderly patients remains low, but they are increasingly being treated in intensive care units. The in-hospital mortality is high (40%) compared to the average mortality in our ICU over the same period (20%). The prognosis is often not as poor as perceived by physicians. The indication for ICU treatment in our study was mostly justified ; in the setting of  consistent patient care and good clinical practice. It remains therefore appropriate to discuss every ICU admission of elderly patients without any restriction related to age.

Pierrick LE BORGNE (Strasbourg), Sophie COURAUD, Charles-Eric LAVOIGNET, Jean-Etienne HERBRECHT, Alexandra BOIVIN, Quentin MAESTRAGGI, Pascal BILBAULT, Francis SCHNEIDER
11:10 - 12:40 #7128 - OP039 Intelligent Assistance Services and Personalized Learning Environments for Support of Knowledge and Performance in Interdisciplinary Emergency Care.
Intelligent Assistance Services and Personalized Learning Environments for Support of Knowledge and Performance in Interdisciplinary Emergency Care.

Background:

During the past decade emergency medicine evolved to an increasing challenge for clinics of all stages of patient care due to a substantial and continous change of medical knowledge, limits of time and health care economics as well as an enormous rise of patient cases. Thus, continuous medical education for all employees involved in the preclinical or clinical phase of emergency care represents an essential prerequisite for high quality patient-centered care to overcome these problems. However, in this special setting of rush, stress and highly intense workload conventional learning techniques do not allow for continous training on the job. To address this problem we developed novel learning and teaching strategies based on digital technologies for both academic and non-academic staff members within interdisciplinary emergency care departments (ED).

 

Methods:

For medical students and trainees we created a podcast and an emergency care software for simulation of emergency cases in order to prepare for the work within the ED in comparison to control groups without access to these learning tools. Acceptance, frequency of usage and effects of these techniques were assessed prior to and after the occupation within the ED by standardized questionnaires and tests. For nurses and paramedics we first assessed the information demands during all processes of emergency patient care in the preclinical and clinical phase. Based on these needs intelligent assistance services were established in cooperation with two technological partners to support daily workflow via web-based services.

 

Results:

Introduction of the podcast and the emergency care software prior to the start within the ED resulted in a significant improvement of skills and expert knowledge for both medical students and trainees in comparison to the control groups (p< 0.002). Both innovative tools were widely accepted and frequently used by each proband. Analysis of processes within the preclinical and clinical phase of emergency care revealed information demands for paramedics and nurses especially with respect to invasive/non-invasive techniques, first aid standard operating procedures, medications and medical devices. Content for these assistance services was developed and subsequently digitalized for web-based usage via mobile devices (tablets). Preliminary results of these applications will be demonstrated and evaluated in a pilot study.

 

Conclusions:

Introduction of novel learning and teaching strategies within the ED allows for a continuous medical education and training on the job in the special setting characteristics of emergency care. Results of our studies revealed a significant improvement of technical skills and medical expertise thus leading to a better performance of the academic staff within the ED. Further studies with non-academic employees now have to evaluate the effects of these innovative strategies within the preclinical and clinical phase of emergency care.

Sabine BLASCHKE (Goettingen, GERMANY), Bjoern SELLEMANN, Carsten ULLRICH, Michael SCHMUCKER , Katrin WEDLER, Sabine REY, Stefan ROEDE, Markus ROESSLER, Otto RIENHOFF, Felix WALCHER, Martin HAAG, Christoph IGEL
11:10 - 12:40 #7243 - OP040 Use of Physical restraint on elderly people in emergency department.
Use of Physical restraint on elderly people in emergency department.

Background: Confusion in elderly people presenting to Emergency Department (ED) is often associated with a state of agitation with or without aggressivity. Recommendations for the management of these patients exist. Physical restraint (PR) is sometimes necessary to protect them but it is a source of morbidity and mortality. The aim of our study was to examine how emergency physicians prescribe physical restraint for elderly people presenting to ED. The primary outcome was association chemical treatment (benzodiazepines and / or neuroleptic) or not to PR.

Methods: Elderly people (age > 75 years old) with prescription of PR were included in this retrospective study between november 2014 and march 2015 in Lariboisière University Hospital, Emergency Department . Two groups were compared on such criteria: 1 / PR alone (group A); 2 / PR + chemical treatment (group B). The primary outcome was the association chemical treatment (benzodiazepines and / or neuroleptic) or not to PR. The secondary outcomes were justified prescription of PR, revaluation of the indication of PR and monitoring of the PR. The student test was used for quantitative variables. The Chi 2 test was used for qualitative variables.


Results: One hundred thirty-eight consecutive patients were analyzed (66 [48%] in group A and 72 [52%] in group B) with no significant difference between the 2 groups (p = 0.32). The prescription of benzodiazepine associated with PR was significantly higher compared to the prescription of neuroleptic. The number of justified prescription of PR was higher but not significantly different (p = 0.05) in group B (n = 18 [25%]) than in group A (n = 8 [12%]). Half of justified prescription of PR was linked to an act of nursing care. The daily revaluation of the PR was significantly higher in group B (respectively 11 [15%] vs 0 in group A, p <0.01).

Conclusion: Elderly people having PR did not always have an associated chemical treatment as provided by the recommendations. The prescription of PR were insufficiently justified. The daily revaluation of the indication of the PR and clinical-biological monitoring were almost non-existent causing a risk of increased morbidity and mortality. This study justified the establishment of a protocol to guide the prescription of the PR in elderly people in our ED.

Erwin HANSCONRAD (Vincennes), Anthony CHAUVIN, Patrick PLAISANCE
11:10 - 12:40 #7415 - OP041 Adverse events in elderly patients admitted to a medical short stay unit.
Adverse events in elderly patients admitted to a medical short stay unit.

Introduction

Elderly patients are at particular risk of experiencing adverse events of hospitalisation, and they are more vulnerable to adverse events compared to younger patients. The aim of this study was to compare the occurrence of adverse events during hospitalisation or within 30 days after discharge to either a short stay unit or a department of internal medicine in elderly internal medicine patients.

Methods

This retrospective study evaluated adverse events during hospitalisation of elderly internal medicine patients either in an emergency department based short stay unit called ‘Quick Diagnostic Unit’ (QDU) or an internal medicine department (IMD) at Holbaek Hospital, Denmark, from January 1st 2014.. Eligible patients were 75 years or older and admitted for any internal medicine disease and they should have a non-emergent (green) triage level at admission. IMD patients were matched with QDU patients by 1) year of birth and 2) date of admission. Medical records were reviewed in a two-stage process by physicians to detect adverse events. Earlier studies have shown that up to 37 % of elderly patients experience an adverse event during a hospitalisation; to detect a 33 % risk reduction based on alpha=0.05 and beta=0.08, a sample size of 450 patients was required. The primary outcome was the occurrence of any adverse event on a list of 19 predefined events during hospitalisation or up to 30 days after discharge. Secondary outcome measures included types of adverse events and mortality. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant.

Results

We screened a total of 833 patients’ hospital charts for inclusion and 450 patients met the inclusion criteria, 225 patients in each group. The median age of patients were 82 years (IQR 78-86 years) for both groups. There were no significant differences in baseline variables. For both groups, the median Charlson Comorbidity Index score was 6 with IQR 5-7. Adverse events were significantly less common in the QDU-group than in the IMD-group, i.e., 68 (30 %) patients in the QDU-group and 92 (41 %) patients in the IMD group had one or more adverse events of hospitalisation, (p=0.02). The relative risk of an adverse event was 0.80 (95 % CI 0.65-0-99) in the QDU-group and 1.23 (95% CI 1.02-1.15) in the IMD group, respectively. The most common adverse events were 1) transfer during hospitalisation, 2) unplanned readmission, 3) nosocomial infection in both groups. We found no significant difference in 90-day mortality QDU-group compared to the IMD-group, 65 (29 %) versus 84 (37%) (HR 0.729 (95% 0.414-1.284)).

Conclusions

Adverse events was significantly less common in elderly patients treated in a medical short stay unit compared to an internal medicine ward. Hospitalisation in a short stay unit seems not only feasible, but in selected cases maybe even preferable, for elderly medical patients.  

Camilla STRØM (Copenhagen S, DENMARK), Lars Simon RASMUSSEN, Thomas Andersen SCHMIDT
11:10 - 12:40 #7631 - OP042 Attitudes and knowledge of emergency medicine health care professionals toward elder abuse and neglect.
Attitudes and knowledge of emergency medicine health care professionals toward elder abuse and neglect.

Introduction: Elder abuse is a significant public health problem. The population of elder people is increasing steadily. According to World Health Organization (WHO), by the year 2050, it is expected that the number of elder people would have come up to 20 percent of world population. Although the elder abuse and neglect prevalence is higher than supposed, it is much lower to identify and report these cases, especially in emergency medicine departments. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge and attitudes of emergency medicine health care professionals toward the identification and management of elder abuse and neglect cases.

Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed in two universities and two training and research hospitals’ emergency departments in Ankara.  The research tool was a 26-item questionnaire that was applied on 184 emergency medicine health care professionals including doctors, nurses, emergency medicine technicians.  Analysis was completed with SPSS 15.0. In addition to descriptive statistics, chi square analysis were used to determine differences between groups.

Results: Although 78% of participants had identified an abuse elder person before, 64% of them have never reported about elder abuse. The main reasons of not reporting are not to feel proficient (41%) and not know how to do that (27%). Significant percent of responders answered that they haven’t had any education about elder abuse and neglect in undergraduate education (73%) and post-graduate education (87%).

Conclusion: This study indicates that emergency medicine health care professionals confronts with abused elder frequently but they abstain from reporting these cases because they feel lack of knowledge about elder abuse and neglect especially.

References:

  1. Mandiracioglu A, Govsa F, Celikli S, Yildirim GO. Emergency health care personnel’s knowledge and experience of elder abuse in Izmir. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 43 (2006) 267–276.
  2. Fulmer T, Paveza G, Abraham I, Fairchild S. Elder neglect assessment in the emergency department. Journal of emergency nursing: 2000 vol: 26 (5) pp: 436-443.
  3. Almogue A, Weiss A,  Marcus EL, Beloosesky Y. Attitudes and knowledge of medical and nursing staff toward elder abuse. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 51 (2010) 86–91.

Acknowledgements: There is no funding received for this work from any organizations. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Aysegul GUVEN CEBECI (Ankara, TURKEY), Isa KILICASLAN, Fikret BILDIK, Sezer ESFER , Reyhan SAHNAOGLU
11:10 - 12:40 #7906 - OP043 Triage training in mass casualty incidents: the added value of virtual simulation in e-learning and classroom teaching.
Triage training in mass casualty incidents: the added value of virtual simulation in e-learning and classroom teaching.

Background: The traditional model of education in medical schools is based on the belief that students will successfully transfer knowledge gained in classroom lectures, completed by self-education trough e-learning. More educational programs are also starting to integrate simulation based learning into their teaching methods. Several studies suggest that clinical simulation is an effective teaching strategy, although it is very depending on the context, topic and method.  Finding out what is the most impactful methodology leading to the best learning and knowledge retention over time is desirable.

The present study was designed to evaluate the added value of virtual simulation programs in teaching START triage to medical students, compared with e-learning and classroom teaching.

 

Methods: Twenty medical students were randomly assigned into two groups: group A and group B. Both groups were given the same classroom lecture, supported by a PowerPoint presentation on how to perform START triage in Mass Casualty Incidents (MCI). Immediately following this lecture, a 30-item paper-based test was administered to assess the student’s ability to understand and apply START triage.

Both groups received a more extensive online presentation with examples and video’s through e-learning. Group B had an additional interactive session with virtual simulation training and professional feedback.

One month later a new test was given to assess and compare knowledge between both groups.

 

Simple descriptive statistics were used to analyse findings, with the independent samples T-test to compare groups where appropriate. For further analysis nonparametric statistics were used due to some indications of possible non-normality.

Alpha was set at p < 0,05 to determine statistical significance. All analyses were conducted using SPSS® software.

 

Results: The baseline test showed a mean score of 15,65 out of 30. For the second test, taken after the thirty-minute classroom teaching session an average score of 26,15 out of 30 was observed. This statistically significant change (Independent‐SamplesMann‐Whitney‐U test, p < 0,001) showed a strong improvement in knowledge after a brief classroom teaching session. After one month of e-learning group A had an average score of 28,6 out of 30. Group B, who received the additional virtual simulation session, scored 28,875 out of 30.

This result didn’t reveal any statistically significant difference between both groups (Independent-Samples Mann-Whitney-U test, p = 0,696).

Also examined was the number of over- and undertriaged casualties, but no significant differences were found between either group. No differences between men and women were noted.

 

Conclusion: Although virtual simulation training has been described in literature as an effective teaching strategy, no significant differences in scores on knowledge tests were found between two test populations of which one received ‐ in addition to classroom lecture and e‐learning ‐ a computer‐based virtual reality simulation training.

Nevertheless, certain findings in this study were surely intriguing opportunities for further research. A comparable study with a larger test group, a more extensive teaching subject and/or a longer time interval between the tests could be interesting pathways to investigate.

Sofie-An VAN BIESEN (Aalst, BELGIUM), Nima TABRIZI-HOSSEINPOUR, Joost BIERENS, Ives HUBLOUE
11:10 - 12:40 #7987 - OP044 Methodological characteristics and outcomes used in simulation randomized controlled trials in the field of Emergency Medicine: a systematic review.
Methodological characteristics and outcomes used in simulation randomized controlled trials in the field of Emergency Medicine: a systematic review.

Background: Simulation is defined as a technique used to replace or amplify real experiences with guided experiences that evoke or replace substantial aspects of the real world in a fully interactive manner. The use of simulation in emergency medicine began decades ago with the use of low-fidelity simulations and has evolved at an unprecedented pace. The literature on simulation is abundant in emergency medicine. But the methodological quality of these studies had not yet been assessed. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of published randomized controlled trials (RCT) assessing a simulation intervention and to examine their methodological characteristics.

Methods: We performed a systematic review on MEDLINE via PubMed of randomized controlled trials, assessing a simulation intervention, published from January, 1st 2012 to December, 31th 2015 in the 6 general and internal medicine journals, and the 10 emergency medicine journals with the highest impact factor according to the Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge. Two researchers independently performed the trials selection and extracted the data, if necessary a third researched stepped in to resolve disagreements. For each trial, researchers extracted the RCT general characteristics, the participants, intervention, comparator and outcomes as reported in the trial report. The Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool was used to assess the trials risk of bias, using the tool main domains (sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, blinding of outcome accessors, incomplete data management and selective reporting). Methodological quality was evaluated using the MERQSI score. The MERSQI is a tool used to assess educational interventions.

Results: 1 394 RCTs were screened, 270 (19%) were considered as in the field of emergency medicine and 69 (26%) assessed a simulation intervention. Fifty-five RCTs were monocentric. The average time of acceptance was 143 days (SD=86). Studies included on average 144 participants. United States of America were the most frequent place of study. In included trials, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), was the most frequent topic (n=55; 80%). The usual procedure was the comparator in half studies (n=37). 30 (43%) of RCTs were evaluated for CPR quality outcomes. A total of 10% (n=7) were registered on a public registry or had an available protocol. The random sequence generation and allocation concealment were correctly performed respectively in 68% (n=47) and 43% (n=30).The participants and assessors blinding were correctly performed in 20% (n=14) and 62% (n=43). The attrition bias was low in two-third in studies (n=50). The reporting bias was low in nearly all studies (n=65; 95%).Methodological quality by MERQSI score averaged 12.3/18 (SD=3).

Conclusions: Trials assessing simulation count fo one quarter of published RCTs in emergency medicine. Their quality remains unclear and should make us very cautious when interpreting their results. In our sample authors particularly failed to correctly describe the blinding and allocation concealment. These trials characteristics being associated with the magnitude of the intervention effect based on previously published meta-epidemiological studies.

Chauvin ANTHONY (Paris), Jennifer TRUCHOT, Dominique PATERON, Patrick PLAISANCE, Youri YORDANOV
11:10 - 12:40 #7997 - OP045 The Phenomenon of Older Emergency Department Frequent Attenders.
The Phenomenon of Older Emergency Department Frequent Attenders.

Introduction:

Characteristics of older frequent users of Emergency Departments (EDs) are poorly understood. Our aim was to examine the characteristics of the ED frequent attenders (FAs) by age (<65 and ≥65 years).   

Methods: 

We examined the prevalence of FA attending the ED of an urban teaching hospital in cross-sectional study between 2009 and 2011. FA was defined as a person who presented to the ED four or more times over a 12-month period. Randomly selected groups of FA and non-FA from two age groups (<65 and ≥65 years) were then examined to compare characteristics between older FAs and non-FAs and older FAs and younger FAs. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for 12-mortality in FA compared to non-FA aged ≥65years.

Results: 

137,150 ED attendances were recorded between 2009 and 2011. 21.6% were aged ≥65years, 4.4% of whom were FAs, accounting for 18.4% of attendances by patients over 65 years. There was a bi-modal age distribution of FA (mean ±SD; <65years 40±12.7; and ≥65years 76.9±7.4). Older FAs were 5 times more likely to present outside normal working hours and 5.5 times more likely to require admission. Cardiovascular emergencies were the most common complaint, in contrast with the younger FA group, where injury and psychosocial conditions dominated. The OR for death at 12-months was 2.07 (95% CI 0.93, 4.63), p=0.07, adjusting for age and gender. 

Conclusion:

1-in-5 ED patients over 65years are frequent attenders. Older FAs largely presented with complex medical conditions. Enhanced access to expert gerontology assessment should be considered as part of effective intervention strategies for older ED users.  

Geraldine MCMAHON, Megan Power FOLEY (Dublin, IRELAND)
 
12:55            
12:55-13:55
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G-EB
Getting to know the EBEEM
Q&A for specialist educators, trainees and candidates

Getting to know the EBEEM
Q&A for specialist educators, trainees and candidates

Moderators: Ruth BROWN (Speaker) (London, UK), Cornelia HARTEL (Consultant in Emergency Medicine/ Director of Medical Education in Emergency Medicine) (Stockholm, SWEDEN)
 
 
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14:10-15:40
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A23
State of the Art
Geriatric

State of the Art
Geriatric

Moderators: Jay BANERJEE (Leicester, UK), Christian NICKEL (Vice Chair) (Basel, SWITZERLAND)
14:10 - 14:40 Management of Confusion in older patients in the ED. Jacinta A. LUCKE (LEIDEN, THE NETHERLANDS)
14:40 - 15:10 Evaluation and resuscitation of older patients in the pre hospital and ED settings. Mehmet Akif KARAMERCAN (ANKARA, TURKEY)
15:10 - 15:40 Management of Brain Injury in Older Patients in the ED. Richard WOLFE (USA)
14:10-15:40
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B23
Austria, Germany, Switzerland Invites
Pflege - Notfallpflegekompetenz

Austria, Germany, Switzerland Invites
Pflege - Notfallpflegekompetenz

Moderators: Florian GROSSMANN (Clincal Nurse Specialist) (Basel, SWITZERLAND), Susanne SCHUSTER (GERMANY)
14:10 - 14:40 Notfallpflegekompetenz aus der Perspektive der Schweiz. Florian GROSSMANN (Clincal Nurse Specialist) (Basel, SWITZERLAND)
14:40 - 15:10 Notfallpflegekompetenz aus der Perspektive Deutschlands. Susanne SCHUSTER (GERMANY)
15:10 - 15:40 Notfallpflegekompetenz aus der Perspektive Österreichs. Thomas WAGNER (AUSTRIA)
14:10-15:40
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C23
Philosophy & Controversies
P&C Resuscitation

Philosophy & Controversies
P&C Resuscitation

Moderators: Gavin D. PERKINS (UK), Peter STRATIL (VIENNA, AUSTRIA)
14:10 - 14:40 ECMO Pros and Cons: You must choose wisely. Lance BECKER (USA)
14:40 - 15:10 To epinephrine or not to epinephrine during cardiac arrest? Gavin D. PERKINS (UK)
15:10 - 15:40 Targeted temperature management after cardiac arrest: when, how deep, and how long? Wilhelm BEHRINGER (Director) (Jena, GERMANY)
14:10-15:40
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D23
EUSEM meets ACCA/ESC

EUSEM meets ACCA/ESC

Moderators: Abdelouahab BELLOU (BOSTON, USA), Martin MOECKEL (Berlin, GERMANY)
14:10 - 14:40 Major bleeding in patients on oral anticoagulants (VKA or NOAC). Kurt HUBER (VIENNA, AUSTRIA)
14:40 - 15:10 Management of acute hypertension in the ED. Abdelouahab BELLOU (BOSTON, USA)
15:10 - 15:40 Strategies to rule in and rule out causes of acute chest pain in the ED. Madalenna LETTINO (ACCA President Elect) (ITALY)
14:10-15:40
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E23
Research
Pre-hospital

Research
Pre-hospital

Moderators: Roman SKULEC (KLADNO, CZECH REPUBLIC), Jana SEBLOVA (Emergency Physician) (PRAGUE, CZECH REPUBLIC)
14:10 - 14:40 EuSM prehospital systems survey 2016. Jana SEBLOVA (Emergency Physician) (PRAGUE, CZECH REPUBLIC)
14:40 - 15:10 EMS systems´comparison across the cases. Christoph REDELSTEINER (Prof) (Wien, AUSTRIA)
15:10 - 15:40 Cardiac arrest on board: How safe are we on the plane? Anatolij TRUHLAR (Hradec Králové, CZECH REPUBLIC)
14:10-15:40
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F23
YEMD
Point of care Ultrasound: batman returns

YEMD
Point of care Ultrasound: batman returns

Moderators: Gregor PROSEN (MARIBOR, SLOVENIA), Senad TABAKOVIC (Zürich, SWITZERLAND)
14:10 - 14:40 POCUS, hype or reality: will it replace the stethoscope? James CONNOLLY (Newcastle upon Tyne, UK)
14:40 - 15:10 The times they are A-changin` - where US is replacing Xray today and where tomorrow. Joseph OSTERWALDER (Head of Hospital) (St. Gallen, SWITZERLAND)
15:10 - 15:40 Can point of car ultrasound turn into a weapon of mass destraction. Gregor PROSEN (MARIBOR, SLOVENIA)
14:10-15:40
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G23
Paediatric track
Research

Paediatric track
Research

Moderators: Javier BENITO FERNANDEZ (Getxo - Vizcaya, SPAIN), Mark LYTTLE (Bristol, UK), Ian MACONOCHIE (UK), Santiago MINTEGUI (Barakaldo, SPAIN)
14:10 - 15:20 Workgroup session with experts. Henriette MOLL (paediatrician) (rotterdam, THE NETHERLANDS), Mark LYTTLE (Bristol, UK), Liviana DA DALT (PHYSICIAN) (PADOVA, ITALY), Laurence LACROIX (Consultant) (Geneva 14, SWITZERLAND)
1. Systematic review, 2. observational trials, randomised controlled trials, 3. information resources, 4. REPEM + PERN. Groups of 10 participants rotate to each table every 20 minutes.
15:20 - 15:40 Paediatrics abstracts. Henriette MOLL (paediatrician) (rotterdam, THE NETHERLANDS)
14:10-15:40
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OP23
Oral Papers 23

Oral Papers 23

Moderators: Anthony CHAUVIN (Chef de Clinique Assistant) (Paris, FRANCE), Jeffrey KEEP (London, UK)
14:10 - 14:20 #6343 - OP046 Emergency Department blood-borne Virus Screening Study (EDVS STUDY). Feasibility and results in an urban inner city Emergency Department.
Emergency Department blood-borne Virus Screening Study (EDVS STUDY). Feasibility and results in an urban inner city Emergency Department.

Introduction

Recent data suggests >2/1000 people live with HIV in the Dublin area. British HIV Association guidelines advise universal HIV testing at this threshold. Reported prevalence of Hepatitis C (HCV) in Ireland is 0.5- 1.2%. Hepatitis B (HBV) prevalence is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a HIV, HBV and HCV panel screening programme in an urban Emergency Department (ED).

 Methods

With ethical approval, opt-out serum screening was piloted from March 2014 to January 2015. Patients who underwent venepuncture in ED were offered an additional panel viral screen of HIV, HBV and HCV testing. An extensive staff education programme was conducted before the study commenced. Visual and verbal reminders were instituted at daily staff handovers. The study organisers provided regular study updates.

Results

Of 10,000 samples, 8839 were analysed following removal of duplicates. A sustained uptake of >50% of samples was attained by Week 3.

97, 44 and 447 patients tested positive for HIV, HBV and HCV respectively. Of these, 7, 20 and 58 were new diagnoses of HIV, HBV and HCV respectively. The incidence and prevalence of all three viruses are outlined below

HIV- incidence 0.8 per 1000, prevalence 11 per 1000

HBV- incidence 2.26 per 1000, prevalence 5.05 per 1000

HCV- incidence 6.5 per 1000, prevalence 50.5 per 1000

Conclusions

The results demonstrate a high prevalence of blood borne viruses in our population. Opt-out serum screening for blood borne viruses is feasible and acceptable in a busy urban ED for both staff and patients. It has now become standard of care in our Emergency Department.

Darren LILLIS (Dublin, IRELAND), S O'CONNELL, A COTTER, S O'DEA, H TUITE, Darragh SHIELDS, S NORRIS, B CROWLEY, Pk PLUNKETT, C BERGIN
14:20 - 14:30 #6507 - OP047 The diagnostic value of optic nerve sheath diameter measurements by ultrasonography in elevated intracranial pressure in stroke patients.
The diagnostic value of optic nerve sheath diameter measurements by ultrasonography in elevated intracranial pressure in stroke patients.

Indtroduction:Stroke is the most common 4th cause of death around the world. Due to brain edema elevated ICP is a reason of clinical deterioration in stroke patients  (%33).  ONSD measurement with ultrasonography is an indirect and non invasive technique to detect EICP.

Aim:The aim of this study is to invastigate the diagnostic value of ONSD measurements in EICP in stroke patients.

Methods:The paper involves data concerning a control group 50 individuals with study group of 105 patients diagnosed with acute stroke at the Adult Emergency Department of Hacettepe University between February 1,2015 and June 30,2015.  Symptoms and physical examinations of the patients were recorded. We performed ON-US to all patients and ONSD measurements by US were compared with the results of study group MRI-ONSD measurements. 

Results:MRI-ONSD measurements were used to diagnose EICP and the cut off for EICP was 5.0 mm in MRI-ONSD. The study group divided in two subgroups as EICP (n=47) and non-EICP (n=58) groups. Of the 155 patients studied, 81 (%52,3) were male and 74 were (%47,6) female. The means of ONSD by US; for non-EICP group for right and left eye were 4,52 mm/4,58 mm, for EICP group were 5,01 mm/5,03 mm. The means of MRI-ONSD for EICP group were 5,05 mm/5,06 mm and non EICP group were 4,56 mm/4,61 mm. Greater than 5,0 mm ONSD by US predicted EICP with sensitivity %95,7; specificity %100, general truth value %91,4 and kappa %82,8. The means of ONSD by US were significantly correlated with MRI-ONSD measurements. Symptoms such as headache, confusion and vomiting were significantly higher in EICP group and these symptoms predicted EICP with sensitivity %95,7; specificity 87,9. The intensive care requirement was increased in EICP group rather than non-EICP group (%25,5/%6,9).  Especially MCA infarction associated with brain edema (%65,7) and elevated mortality rate (%14,3). 5 patients (%4,76) were exitus in intensive care unit and all the patients had MCA infarction.

Conclusion:As a result, ONSD measurements by US is sufficient, reliable and practical in the diagnosis of acute stroke. ICP assessment with ON-US in acute stroke patients could be used to predict treatment process, prognosis and mortality.

Ali BATUR, Mehmet Ali KARACA (ISTANBUL, TURKEY), Volkan ARSLAN, Mustafa BOZ, Bulent ERBIL, Zaur IBRAHIMOV, M.ruhi ONUR
14:30 - 14:40 #7143 - OP048 The Efficieny Of Ultrasonography For Reduction of Distal Radial Fractures In The Emergency Deapartment.
The Efficieny Of Ultrasonography For Reduction of Distal Radial Fractures In The Emergency Deapartment.

Introduction: Distal radius fracture is the most common fracture of the wrist. Adequacy of reduction is evaluated through two-way post-reduction graphies. In the event that inadequate reduction is ascertained in the wake of the evaluated graphies, sedation and reduction procedures are performed on the patient once again. Ultrasonography (USG) can be used in the management of the patients with distal radius fractures, however, there are no adequate number of studies suggesting the efficiency of USG alone in showing the status of reduction success. The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficiency of the use of bedside USG for determining reduction success distal radius fractures and  to investigate the detecttability of the possible causes leading to unsuccessful reduction when using USG. 

Methods: Consecutive patients applied to the emergency department of the Faculty of Medicine of Ege University between the period, April 2013–September 2013, were incorporated into this prospective double-blind cross-sectional study. The patients aged over 18, who had wrist trauma and distal radius fracture and on whom reduction was performed were included to the study. Pre- and postreduction ultrasonographic images were recorded by a research asistant trained in extremity ultrasonography, images were recorded in longitudinal and horizontal axes. 

Separately, emergency medicine specialist (EMS)also, by examining the ultrasonographic images, evaluated the angulation of the distal fragment towards the dorsal or volar part, and whether or not there was any shortening in the radius, and whether there were any multiple fragments in the dorsal part of the distal fragment. The post-reduction graphies were re-evaluated in terms of reduction success by another orthopedic surgeon uninformed about the performed procedures. The orthopedic surgeon evaluated the reduction success and, the radial height: ≥5mm, radial angulation: between 15⁰-25⁰ , and the volar tilt angle: between  0⁰-20⁰  were considered as normal values. Evaluation of orthopedic surgeon was accepted as gold standart and compared with EMS. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were measured.  

Results: Ulltrasonography was 97,5% sensitive and 95% specific in determining the reduction success, the positive predictive value (PPV) was found as 97,5%, whereas the negative predictive value (NPV) was found as 95%. When direct graphy was accepted to be the golden standard, the direction of the distal fragment was determined with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity through ultrasonography (PPV:100%, NPV:100%). The number of the multiple fragments was determined with 86% sensitivity and 73% specificity with use of ultrasonography (PPV: 84%, NPV: 77%), while the presence of radial shortening was ascertained with 67% sensitivity and 65% specificity (PPV: 79%, NPV: 50%).

Both ultrasonography and direct graphy was determined that distal fragment located towards the volar and presence of multiple distal fragments had negatively affected the reduction success significantly. However ultrasonography was failed to determine reduction success in the presence radial shortening (p=0,582)  when direct graphy succesfully determined the reduction success (p=0.008). 

Conclusion: Ultrasonography can be helpful in determining the reduction success for distal radius fractures which needs reduction. In the future, using ultrasonography may boost reduction success prominently in the ED.

 

 

Ozgur BOZKURT, Murat ERSEL (IZMIR, TURKEY), Funda KARBEK AKARCA, Sercan YALCINLI, Sadiye MIDIK, Levent KUCUK
14:40 - 14:50 #7380 - OP049 Emergency Department Applicability of SOFA Sepsis – Is There a Middle Ground?
Emergency Department Applicability of SOFA Sepsis – Is There a Middle Ground?

Background – 2016 has seen the publication of new definitions for sepsis and further evaluation of the SOFA sepsis scoring system. With little involvement from Emergency Department (ED) physicians, the problem now is applying them to the first few hours of patient care. The ED requires a system that sits between the blunt triage tool of 'quick SOFA' (qSOFA) and the intensive-care based and considerably more detailed SOFA Sepsis score.  The key area of difficulty with applying the SOFA score is that it relies on changes from patient’s baseline. This baseline information, however, is rarely available in its entirely in the critical period of the patient’s initial care in the ED. Assuming a baseline score of 0 for all patients will clearly result in overdiagnosis of sepsis in the ED.

Aims

  • to illustrate the difficulties in applying the SOFA score within a representative ED population in comparison to the qSOFA and National Early Warning Score (NEWS)
  • to develop and test an adapted SOFA score (EDdeltaSOFA) with specific, pragmatic assumptions for the ED relating to existing physiological baseline and pre-existing disease.

Methods

A retrospective analysis was performed of one month’s patients notes who had been coded for ‘infection’ within an ED database. The NEWS and qSOFA score were calculated from recorded vital signs at triage. These scores were then applied against the SOFA score (calculated from blood tests and physiological parameters within the ED) necessarily assuming a baseline as 0 and then against an adapted score.

This adapted SOFA score, the 'EDdeltaSOFA' utilises all the same categories as the SOFA score but allows for a few pragmatic assumptions based on prior knowledge or reasoned clinical suspicion of the patient’s baseline physiology. For example, for renal impairment, where previous creatinine is not known but the patient has a history of chronic renal impairment, it seems reasonable to assume a baseline SOFA score of 1 rather than a baseline score of 0.

Results

Within the sample of 169 patients who met criteria, 34 patients were excluded with missing data. 57 patients were positive for SOFA sepsis within the sample with only 42 meeting criteria with the adapted EDqSOFA score. NEWS and qSOFA performed poorly for predicting SOFA sepsis when the patient’s baseline physiology score was assumed to be zero. NEWS sensitivity 54% (C.I.s 41-67) specificity 43% (C.I.s 31-54) and qSOFA 55% (C.I.s 42-68) specificity 66% (C.I.s 54-76). They performed better when the EDqSOFA score was applied. NEWS sensitivity 88% (C.I.s 74-96) specificity 49% (C.I.s 39-59) and qSOFA 71% (C.I.s 55-84%) specificity 69% (C.I.s 58-78%)

Conclusion:

The new definitions of 2016 are an extremely welcome step forward in our understanding of the elusive clinical entity of sepsis. It is now the role of Emergency Physicians to apply the knowledge to our clinical environment. The data presented above suggests that there is a promising method of adapting the SOFA sepsis score. It is the authors’ intention to develop this tool further and conduct a series of larger validation trials for its use.

 

Tom ROBERTS, Danny YOOKEE, Matt EDWARDS (LONDON, UK), Jeff KEEP
14:50 - 15:00 #4547 - OP050 Follow-up review of the impact of national jaundice guidance (NICE CG98) on inappropriate attendances to a paediatric emergency department.
Follow-up review of the impact of national jaundice guidance (NICE CG98) on inappropriate attendances to a paediatric emergency department.

Background

NICE guidelines (NICE CG98) launched in May 2010 on neonatal jaundice mandate quantitative bilirubin testing in every neonate noticed to be visibly jaundiced. The guidelines were implemented locally in August 2011, and consequently, caused a significant surge in the number of attendances to our paediatric emergency department (ED) for bilirubin level assessments, straining emergency services significantly, as seen in a review done in 2012. Transcutaneous bilirubinometers were purchased for local midwifery teams to enable quantitative bilirubin testing in the community. This study was undertaken to review the impact of the NICE guidelines and the provision of trancutaneous bilirubinometers since.

Materials

Review of hospital episode statistics from November 2014 to August 2015 as recorded on EPIC and comparison of ED attendances against the local birth rates and inpatient admissions with neonatal jaundice as a diagnosis; and comparing this against a similar review of the data undertaken in 2012. Review of the proportion of admissions and bed days for feeding and observation compared to phototherapy and septic screens.

Results

From the previous review done in 2012 in the department, pre-guideline implementation saw an average of 14.5 patients per month present to the paediatric ED with jaundice, rising dramatically to an average of 49 patients per month post-guideline implementation. Local birth rates remained stable at about 490 births per month. Over the same time period, admission of neonates to a paediatric inpatient ward with jaundice did not rise significantly at approximately 15 admissions per month. Over the period of November 2014 to August 2015, with the introduction of transcutaneous bilirubinometers for community midwives, which allows for quantitative assessment of bilirubin levels in the community, the attendance of patients to the paediatric ED with jaundice has fallen back to baseline of an average of 13.5 patients per month (Fig. 1). This is assuming that the local birth rate remained stable. Of these attendances, 15.5% were recalls to ED for serial serum bilirubin readings. Of these recalls, 25% were recalled for two serial bilirubin tests, while the other 75% were recalled once. Of these patients, most of them had an initial presentation of jaundice alone with no other worrying features (e.g. lethargy, fever, loss of weight). All these patients were discharged with no further follow-up.

Conclusion

Before the implementation of national guidelines, a careful assessment and anticipation of its downstream effects is required. Simple investigations made available in the community will help mitigate attendances to the emergency department, and will help reduce healthcare costs and inconvenience to patients and families. Similarly, providing, encouraging or enabling utilisation of services in the community that prevent the initial problem will help in reducing attendances at the ED and admissions for observations and support services that are already available in the community. 

Xue-En CHUANG (Bury St. Edmund's, UK), Peter HEINZ
15:00 - 15:10 #8005 - OP051 Consultus Interruptus: Unscheduled Interactions within the Emergency Department.
Consultus Interruptus: Unscheduled Interactions within the Emergency Department.

Introduction

It is well recognised that the job of an EM consultant involves multitasking and dealing with multiple unscheduled interactions (UI). The fluid, unpredictable, time pressurised and multi-professional nature of EM makes it particularly susceptible to UI. An increasing number of UI can result in increased error. An Increasing number of decisions, irrespective of complexity can lead to error and decision fatigue. We aim to map the number of UI an EM consultant faces when on shift.

Objectives

This study attempted to answer the following questions:

  • In a day how many unscheduled interactions does the senior EM physician deal with?

  • How many of these are interactions are clinical interactions?

  • What is the average length of time spent dealing with these unscheduled interactions?

Methods

This prospective observational study took place at a single centre urban ED in the West Midlands. The study period was from 1.12.15 to 23.12.15. An EM consultant was trailed on shift by a medical student who noted down all the non-patient interactions that the consultant had. The consultant had no input into data collection. The nature of the UI, the time spent and the outcome was recorded on a simple data collection form. This was then collated and analysed.

 Results

  • A total of 23 shifts over 135hrs 34min were observed.

  • There was a mix of early (0800-1600), late (1600-2100) and weekend shifts.

  • All 10 members of the consultant body were followed.  

Total Number of UI in study period:  2082

Average Number of UI per hr:  17.95 UI/hr.

UI rate (time per UI) 3min 21seconds

Average time per UI 87.5sec   (Range 10s–34 mins)

Clinical Interaction vs Non Clinical Interactions: 94% vs 6%

Conclusion

In this single centre study of an urban UK emergency department 40% of shop floor consultant time is spent dealing with UI. The majority (94%) of these UI related to clinical interactions. In this study this equates to 17.95 UI per hour with an average time spent dealing with each interaction of 87.5 seconds

Discussion

The nature of modern EM necessitates a senior EM physician running a shift on order to cope with the vast number of UI that must be resolved. Combining the intensity of this role with an individual patient load  is not feasible and departments should consider the initiation of a ‘captain of the ship’ ‘Fat Controller’ role along with a second senior EP to provide individual consultant level care to the sickest individuals who require senior input.

Sandeep GILL (Smethwick, UK), Raj PAW, Peter DOYLE, Ameer SHAH, Sarah SHAKKSHIR, Munir ABUKHDER
15:10 - 15:20 #8142 - OP052 Assessment of fluid responsiveness in the critically ills: which role for echocardiography?
Assessment of fluid responsiveness in the critically ills: which role for echocardiography?

Background: Volume expansion is a key component of therapy in critically ill patients, although its effect is difficult to predict using conventional measurements. Dynamic parameters, evaluated by echocardiography, have demonstrated a good diagnostic accuracy in several studies, but conflicting results have been reported. Aim of this study was to examine the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of vena cava collapsibility index (VCCI) and velocity time integral variation after passive leg raising (PLR) in an unselected population of critically ill patients admitted to a sub-intensive clinical setting.

Methods: This is a prospective, observational, pilot study. Unselected critical patients admitted in an Emergency Department High-Dependency Unit (ED-HDU) were evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography to measure vena cava collapsibility index (VCCI) and aortic velocity (AoV)  variation during PLR. According to VCCI, patients were considered fluid-responders when the value was ≥50%, non-fluid responders when the collapse was <10% and indefinite response for intermediate values. According to AoV variation after PLR, a positive hemodynamic response was defined as an increase in AoV ≥ 10%. Whenever possible, both VCCI and AoV variation during PLR were evaluated. According to echocardiographic evaluation, three therapeutic options were considered: no intervention, administration of fluids or diuretics. Any change in the therapeutic strategy by the treating physician in the following 12 hours was annotated into the clinical records.

Results: we enrolled 29 patients, mean age 75±13 years; the two most frequent reasons for ED-HDU admission were sepsis (69%) and COPD re-exacerbation (14%). VCCI was feasible in 25 (86%) patients, while PLR could be performed in 13 (45%, p=0.004). According to VCCI, 11 (38%) patients were fluid-responder, 7 (24%) were non fluid-responders and in 7 patients VCCI showed an intermediate value; PLR was concordant with VCCI in 7 patients and it gave a diagnostic result in 6 patients in whom VCCI was not feasible or not diagnostic. According to the echocardiographic evaluation, 6 patients did not receive any treatment, 16 were treated with fluids and 7 with diuretics: the therapeutic option was maintained for the following twelve hours in 23 patients, while it was modified in the remaining 6 patients. This group of patients have been evaluated only by VCCI; 3 of them were fluid-responders, 2 non fluid-responders and 1 in the intermediate group. In these patients left ventricular systolic function was slightly depressed (left ventricular ejection fraction 47±9 vs 54±17% in the remaining patients) and lactate dosage was  normal (1.3±0.7 vs 2.4±3.6 mEq/L): these differences were not statistically significant, probably in part as a consequence of the limited population size, and need to be confirmed in a larger study group.

Conclusions: VCCI appears to be very feasible in an unselected population of critically ill patients; the proportion of patients with an indefinite value, who need a further evaluation, is not negligible as well as the proportion of patients in whom the therapeutic option based on VCCI measurement had to be modified in the following hours. PLR has a limited feasibility but it shows a very good diagnostic performance.   

Caterina SAVINELLI (San Felice a Cancello (CE), ITALY), Salvatori MATTIA, Federico MEO, Alessandro COPPA, Francesca INNOCENTI, Riccardo PINI
15:20 - 15:30 #8174 - OP053 Factors associated with recurrent diabetic ketoacidosis in the emergency department.
Factors associated with recurrent diabetic ketoacidosis in the emergency department.

 

Introduction:

   Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is one of the most commun diagnosis in the emergency department(ED). Many studies reported that DKA is the leading cause of mortality .In addition to the risk of fatality,recurrent DKA has a major impact on the quality of life of patients and many factors can be  associated with it.

Objective:

  The aim of this study was to identify the factors that influence recurrent DKA  in the ED.

Methods:

  We carried out a prospective observational cohort study in patients who were hospitalized in the ED for DKA during four years (2012-2015) .The epidemiological data ,clinical signs, etiology and  treatment were studied. An univariate linear regression analysis was carried out to find out the variables associated with recurrent DKA.

Results :

  Inclusion of 176 patients.136 with type 1 diabetes and 40 with type 2 diabetes. Mean age was 34 +/- 16 years. Sex ratio = 0,81. The major clinical signs were vomiting (69%) and dyspnea (53%). The leading precipitating causes of DKA were the poor compliance with insulin therapy (44%) and  infection (42%). A total of 145 patients presented with the first time DKA and 31 with recurrent episodes. Compared with the first-time DKA patients, those with recurrent episodes were younger (27 ±13 years vs 35 ± 16, p=0,003),had type 1 diabetes (97 % vs 78 %,p=0,008), duration of diabetes less than 5 years ( 61% vs 54 %, p=0,02 ), had more hyperventilation (Paco2= 18 ± 5 mm hg vs 22 ± 7, p=0,004),and a short delay of visit to ED (39 ± 3 hours vs 66 ± 10 , p=0,008).

Conclusion:

  The younger age , a short delay of visit ED , a low Paco2 and duration of type 1 Diabetes less than 5 years  were associated with recurrent DKA .The recognition  of such factors and the institution of specific programs might reduce DKA recurrence .

Wided BAHRIA (TUNISIA, TUNISIA), Hanene GHAZALI, Wided BOUSSELMI, Anware YAHMADI, Farah RIAHI, Mahbouba CHKIR , Monia NGACH, Sami SOUISSI
15:30 - 15:40 #8209 - OP054 Point of care Ultrasound for the approach to respiratory distress in pediatric age: a feasibility study.
Point of care Ultrasound for the approach to respiratory distress in pediatric age: a feasibility study.

Objectives

Point of Care Ultrasound (POCUS) in emergency medicine (EM) is a goal directed analysis integrated with the clinical examination of the critically ill patient presenting to the Emergency Department (ED). Its overall scope is to provide rapid dichotomous answers to questions that arise during the assessment to rule-in or rule-out the diagnosis. In adult the integration of chest US with a bedside  ecocardiography (ECHO) improves diagnostic accuracy of acute dyspnea allowing an appropriate management of the patient. There are no data available for its impact on pediatric patient management in the ED.

 Methods

This is a prospective, single center, observational study with the aim to verify the diagnostic performance and reproducibility of  POCUS evaluation including chest, heart, and IVC in the differential diagnosis of respiratory distress in children admitted to a pediatric ED, comparing this procedure with the standard approach in use. Moreover we want to estimate the time needed to complete POCUS assessment compared to the standard approach.

The study was leaded on a sample of patients aged 29 days to 18 years with respiratory distress, for whom two clinicians performed independent evaluations. We compared the diagnosis of the first clinician assessor with the diagnosis resulted by the POCUS approach performed by the researchers. The following outcome measures were used: 1) time to the diagnosis, 2) diagnostic accuracy of the two assessments, 3) concordance of diagnosis set with the two approaches with the gold standard. We considered as gold standard the discharge diagnosis from the ED, Observation Unit or ward.

 Results

During the enrollment period 579 patients with respiratory distress were evaluated in our ED. We enrolled 68 patients so this resulted in 511 (88%) missed eligible. The sample of the patients enrolled was similar to the missed eligible by age, gender and for the presence of risk factors. There were not significant differences between the average time needed for the standard clinical evaluation and for the POCUS examination (p=0.22). The average time for POCUS examination was significantly lower than the time needed to make a diagnosis in the subset of patients that underwent chest XR (p=0.02) and significantly lower than the time needed to obtain the discharge diagnosis from the ED or Observation Unit (p<0.05). The overall agreement of the diagnostic hypotheses compared to the gold standard was moderate for both POCUS (k =0.60) and the standard assessment (k=0.54). Finally for the patients who were admitted, we calculated the agreement between the diagnosis based on the standard approach and POCUS assessment with the discharge diagnosis that resulted respectively moderate (k=0.45) and perfect (k=0.85).

In patients who presented for wheezing, POCUS assessment showed a significantly higher specificity than the clinical evaluation alone (respectively 87% 95%CI 69.2-96.2 and 43% 95% CI 25.5-62.6, p <0.05).

Conclusions

Our study showed that POCUS evaluation is useful to address a more accurate and faster diagnosis of respiratory distress in children compared to the sole standard clinical approach. In the context of pediatric emergency medicine awareness is required to apply POCUS in clinical practice

Niccolò PARRI, Martina GIACALONE (florence, ITALY), Elisa GUERRINI, Francesca BRONZINI
 
16:10
16:10-17:40
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A24
State of the Art
Pain Management & Procedural Sedation

State of the Art
Pain Management & Procedural Sedation

Moderators: Jim DUCHARME (Mississauga, CANADA), Christian HOHENSTEIN (PHYSICIAN) (JENA, GERMANY)
16:10 - 16:40 Migraine - patient handling and treatment options. Carsten KLINGNER (GERMANY)
16:40 - 17:10 Acute Pain Management in the ED. Jim DUCHARME (Mississauga, CANADA)
17:10 - 17:40 Regional blocks for dental trauma and facial lacerations. Andy NEILL (IRELAND)
16:10-17:40
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B24
Austria, Germany, Switzerland Invites
Diverse klinische Themen

Austria, Germany, Switzerland Invites
Diverse klinische Themen

Moderators: Harald DORMANN (GERMANY), Mathias ZÜRCHER (SWITZERLAND)
16:10 - 16:40 Mildes Schädelhirntrauma. Dieter VON OW (SWITZERLAND)
16:40 - 17:10 Allergische Reaktion. Dieter VON OW (SWITZERLAND)
17:10 - 17:40 Urogenitale Notfälle. Beat LEHMANN (SWITZERLAND)
16:10-17:40
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C24
Philosophy & Controversies
P&C Geriatric

Philosophy & Controversies
P&C Geriatric

Moderators: Olivier GANANSIA (Chef de service) (Paris, FRANCE), Richard WOLFE (USA)
16:10 - 16:40 Screening and Detection of Delirium in Older patients: Are CAM-ICU, mCAM-ED, RASS, bCAM helpful in the ED? Christian NICKEL (Vice Chair) (Basel, SWITZERLAND)
16:40 - 17:10 Management of Acute Chest Pain in Older patients in the ED: Is there any differences with other patients? Martin MOECKEL (Berlin, GERMANY)
17:10 - 17:40 Screening Instruments to Predict Adverse Outcomes in Older Patients in the ED: Is it feasible? Abdelouahab BELLOU (BOSTON, USA)
16:10-17:40
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D24
EUSEM meets SAEM

EUSEM meets SAEM

Moderators: Andra BLOMKALNS (USA), Roberta PETRINO (Head of department) (Italie, ITALY)
16:10 - 16:40 Quality and Safety Management in US Emergency Departments: Is there any improvement after the 15 years of "To Err is Human"? Andra BLOMKALNS (USA)
16:40 - 17:10 The evolution of academic Emergency Medicine in Europe. Roberta PETRINO (Head of department) (Italie, ITALY)
17:10 - 17:40 Opioid drug abuse in the US: what is the role of the Emergency Department? Mark COURTNEY (Casuarina, AUSTRALIA)
16:10-17:40
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E24
Research
Resuscitation

Research
Resuscitation

Moderators: Wilhelm BEHRINGER (Director) (Jena, GERMANY), Michael HOLZER (AUSTRIA)
16:10 - 16:40 Cooling during cardiac arrest, what’s on the horizon? Michael HOLZER (AUSTRIA)
16:40 - 17:10 Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival: A Time to Act. Lance BECKER (USA)
17:10 - 17:40 Resuscitation in the 24th century. David HÖRBURGER (Physician internal medicine) (St. Gallen, SWITZERLAND)
16:10-17:40
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F24
YEMD
EM in Extreme environments

YEMD
EM in Extreme environments

Moderators: Monika BRODMANN MAEDER (Senior Consultant, Head of Education and Mountain Emergency Medicine) (Bern, SWITZERLAND), Pieter Jan VAN ASBROECK (Consultant in Emergency Medicine) (Hasselt, BELGIUM)
16:10 - 16:40 Emergency medicine in the Antartic: Ins and outs. Béatrice LAUDET (interne) (PARIS, FRANCE)
16:40 - 17:10 SAVE: Military Emergency Medecine management of multiple victims in extreme situations. Yann-Laurent VIOLIN (PARIS, FRANCE)
17:10 - 17:40 Mass casualties and emergency medicine in the Himalayas. Monika BRODMANN MAEDER (Senior Consultant, Head of Education and Mountain Emergency Medicine) (Bern, SWITZERLAND)
16:10-17:40
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G24
Paediatric track
Major Incident Management

Paediatric track
Major Incident Management

Moderators: Tom BEATTIE (UK), Yehezkel WAISMAN (ISRAEL)
16:10 - 17:40 Workgroup Session.
16:10-17:40
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OP24
Oral Papers 24

Oral Papers 24

Moderators: Jeffrey KEEP (London, UK), Gregor PROSEN (MARIBOR, SLOVENIA)
16:10 - 16:20 #4506 - OP055 Intravenous Caffeine versus Intravenous Ketorolac for the Management of Moderate to Severe Migraine Headache in the Emergency Department; a Randomized Controlled Trial.
Intravenous Caffeine versus Intravenous Ketorolac for the Management of Moderate to Severe Migraine Headache in the Emergency Department; a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Objective: Ketorolac is a standard agent for abortive management of migraine headache in the emergency department (ED). The objective of this study was to determine if intravenous caffeine is as effective as intravenous ketorolac for the treatment of moderate to severe migraine headaches.

Methods: This randomized double blind clinical trial was conducted between January and December 2014 in two EDs in Tehran, Iran. Patients who met International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition criteria for migraine were enrolled. Based on an online random number generator, patients received 60 mg caffeine citrate or 60 mg ketorolac infused intravenously over 10 minutes. Visual analog scales (VAS) were used to measure pain at baseline and one hour and two hours after infusion. Therapeutic success was defined as improvement of 3 points on the VAS without requirement of rescue medication. A sample size calculation determined the need for at least 102 patients.

Results: 193 patients were approached for participation and 110 patients were randomized. 55 patients were assigned to each group of whom 75.5 % were women. Baseline pain scores were comparable between the groups. Therapeutic success after 60 minutes was achieved by 63.6 % of patients in the caffeine and 70.1% of patients in the ketorolac group (p=0.23). After 120 minutes, 87.3 % of the caffeine group and 83.6% of the ketorolac group achieved therapeutic success (p=0.49). Subgroup analysis did not reveal any association between age or sex and outcome.

Conclusion: In this multi-center, randomized double blind ED study, intravenous caffeine was as effective as intravenous ketorolac for first line abortive management of acute migraine.

Alireza BARATLOO (Tehran, IRAN, ISLAMIC REPUBLIC), Alaleh ROUHIPOUR, Mohammad Mehdi FOROUZANFAR, Saeed SAFARI, Benjamin WOLKIN FRIEDMAN, Ali ABDALVAND
16:20 - 16:30 #6480 - OP056 Predictive Performance of a Regression Model to evaluate clinical outcomes of Acute Low Back pain patients in emergency department.
Predictive Performance of a Regression Model to evaluate clinical outcomes of Acute Low Back pain patients in emergency department.

Background:

Low back pain (LBP) constitutes a challenging health problem which causes considerable socio-economic burden to healthcare system globally. Efforts have been focused on early prognostic assessment and stratification of LBP patients to matched interventions. Recently, the STarT Back Screening Tool (SBT) for back pain prognostic indicators has been developed to help initial decision making in primary care settings and has shown clinical and economic benefits. To our knowledge, SBT has not been used in the emergency department (ED) to assess LBP patients. In this study, we aim to create a regression model by integrating SBT, demographic and clinical variables and to evaluate its predictive performance for 6-month clinical outcomes of acute LBP patients presenting to the ED of a tertiary hospital in Singapore.

Methods:

A prospective observational cohort study was conducted. Eligible patients consulting ED doctors with acute LBP were invited to participate and administered the SBT at initial evaluation. Demographic information and LBP-related clinical characteristics were either gathered from patients’ case notes or self-reported by patients via telephone interview. The primary clinical outcome was pain score measured using the Visual Analogue Scale which was collected at baseline and at 6-week and 6-month follow-up. Treatment or referral of patients was at the discretion of ED doctors in line with current best practice. Prediction of pain score at 6-month was evaluated by using a multiple regression model which integrated independent variables including SBT score, demographics (age, gender, ethnicity, BMI, employment status) and LBP-related clinical characteristics (prior LBP onset, current LBP episode duration, pain score at ED, pain score at 6-week).

Results:

A total of 173 eligible patients were recruited, of which 19 patients were excluded from the analysis due to loss of contact in 6-month follow-up. Multicollinearity diagnostic analysis showed no correlation between independent variables of interest except for SBT overall and psychosocial scores (Pearson correlation=0.90). Therefore, SBT psychosocial score was not included in the model development in this study. The multiple regression model achieved R2 of 0.425 and adjusted R2 of 0.375, where pain score at 6-week (β=0.58), employment status (β=-0.12) and age (β=-0.10) were the three strong predictors among all the variables.

 Conclusion:

A regression model built by integrating SBT overall score, demographic and clinical variables has shown value in predicting 6-month pain score for acute LBP patients presenting to the ED. This study concludes that a predictive model is useful in determining the pain score at 6 months and early physiotherapy should be provided to high risk patients to avoid poor outcomes.

Sohil POTHIAWALA (Singapore, SINGAPORE), Jiang BO, Jennifer LIAW, Mark LEONG, Celia TAN
16:30 - 16:40 #7628 - OP057 The quality of work life of young emergency physicians.
The quality of work life of young emergency physicians.

Introduction: Although the practice of emergency medicine can be meaningful and personally fulfilling, it can also be demanding and exhausting. Emergency departments (EDs) are a particularly stressful work environment. This can be explained by difficult work conditions including significant workload and psychological demand, a default of resources, and lack of support. It is probable that these characteristics impact young emergency physicians’ perceived quality of life and work life balance. Our aim, in this study, was to evaluate quality of life and work life balance of French young emergency physicians.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, anonymous, online survey of quality of life satisfaction among young emergency medicine physicians in France. The survey, containing 32 items,  was distributed by email via the AJMU network (Association of young emergency medicine physicians). Burnout symptoms were measured using validated instruments. Because other burnout studies have focused on the presence of high levels of emotional exhaustion or depersonalization as the foundation of burnout in physicians, we considered physicians with a high score on the depersonalization or emotional exhaustion as having at least 1 manifestation of professional burnout. Satisfaction level with work-life balance was explored as well. Descriptive statistics of percentage, mean and standard deviation and odds ratio calculation were used to analyse the data.

Results: 475 physicians completed the questionnaire (response rate of 33,6%). The median age was 31.5 years old (SD=2.7), among those 55.4% were women. The median duration of practice in the ED was 3.2 years. On a scale of 1 to 10, the level of satisfaction with their work was 6.6 (SD=1.8). The level of satisfaction with their life outside the ED was 7.2 (SD=2), and with their work life balance was 5.7 (SD=2.1). Overcrowding was considered stressful for 72% of responders. The mean level of perceived consideration by others specialists was 4.1 (SD=1.74). Only 7% of the physicians considered working in the ED until their retirement.  52.6% considered transferring to general medicine if they stopped working in the ED. Working more than 48 hours per week and being a woman were associated with a higher risk of presenting symptoms of burnout with a respective OR of 1.8 [1.1; 2.9] and 1.9 [1.1; 3.2].

Discussion: Our study has several strengths. The large physician sample was drawn from a young emergency physician registry, and included physicians from across our country in all type of practices, settings, and environments. However, our study is subject to several limitations among which the response rate of 33,6% among physicians who received an invitation to participate in the study is lower than expected. It is however similar to those seen in this type of questionnaire studies.

Conclusion: These results show that the young ED physicians in our study have an overall good quality of life and a satisfying work life balance. The results of a larger study would yield a greater understanding of the factors associated with work-related quality of life and burnout in the ED.

Jennifer TRUCHOT (Paris), Anthony CHAUVIN, Alice HUTIN, Thomas LEREDU, Patrick PLAISANCE , Youri YORDANOV
16:40 - 16:50 #7647 - OP058 Prognostic value of SOFA score in a population of patients admitted in an Emergency-Department High-Dependency Unit.
Prognostic value of SOFA score in a population of patients admitted in an Emergency-Department High-Dependency Unit.

Aims: To evaluate the prognostic role of anamnestic variables and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (SOFA) in a population of patients admitted in an Emergency Department High Dependency Unit (ED-HDU).

Methods: ED-HDU is a clinical setting with a sub-intensive level of care, whose mission is to stabilize patients in order to prevent admission in Intensive Care Units (ICU); a maximum 48-hour ED-HDU length of stay is recommended. From June, 2014, we recorded all our patients in a standardized database; after 20 months, we analyzed the database in order to identify predictive parameters of an adverse outcome. To standardize comorbidity, Charlson index was calculated; SOFA score calculation was employed to evaluate organ dysfunction. The primary end-points were ED-HDU mortality and ICU admission.

Results: In the study period (June 2014-March 2016) we admitted 2300 patients, mean age 72±16 years (range 14-102; 5% aged ≤40 years, 22% aged 41-65 years, 38% aged 66-80 years, 34% aged >80 years), 53% male gender; Charlson index was 4±3 (range 2-15) and SOFA score was 2.4±2.6 (range 0-17). Final dispositions were: 733 patients were discharged to home, 1242 were admitted in an ordinary ward, 144 in a HDU, 138 in an ICU and 43 died.  Overall, we could stabilize and avoid a level of care increase in 86% of our patients. Compared with admitted patients, discharged patients were significantly younger  (69±16 vs 73±16 years, p<0.001) and had a lower Charlson index (3.9±2.3 vs 4.6±2.5) and SOFA score (1.0±1.3 vs 3.0±2.8 all p<0.001); 91% did not show any organ failure at admission, 89% did not have any infection (respectively vs 62% and 61% in admitted patients, p<0.001) and among the 82 patients with infection, 79 had not the criteria for sepsis or septic shock. Non-dischargeable patients were divided in three subgroups: patients admitted in ordinary ward or HDU (D1, n=1368), admitted in ICU (D2, n=138) and non-survivors (D3, n=43). D3 patients were significantly older than D1 and D2 patients (81±13 vs 73±12 and 73±16 years, both p≤0.01), had a higher Charlson index (D1: 4.5±2.5, D2 4.9±2.4, D3 6.4±2.9, p<0.001) and SOFA score (D1 2.7±2.4, D2 4.3±3.6, D3 9.8±3.8, p<0.001).  Presence of moderate to severe organ failure, involving up to two systems, increased significantly (D1 35%, D2 53% and D3 84%,  all p<0.001) in the aforementioned subgroups with increasingly worst prognosis, as well as proportion of patients with an infection at ED-HDU admission (D1 37%, D2 45%, D3 81%, p<0.001 D3 vs D1 and D2) and infection severity (sepsis/septic shock: D1 28%, D2 55%, D3 83%, all p<0.001). A multivariable regression analysis including age, Charlson index, SOFA score and presence of infection at ED-HDU admission  showed that only SOFA score showed an independent prognostic value  both for ICU admission (RR 1.21, 95%CI 1.13-1.29) and ED-HDU mortality (RR 1.76, 95%CI 1.57-1.96, all p<0.001).

Conclusions: ED-HDU carried out its own mission in the most proportion of admitted patients; a high SOFA score was the only independent predictor of a bad outcome. 

Federico MEO (Firenze, ITALY), Francesca CALDI, Rita AUDISIO, Caterina SAVINELLI, Valerio Teodoro STEFANONE, Lucia TAURINO, Francesca INNOCENTI, Riccardo PINI
16:50 - 17:00 #7771 - OP059 Emergency rooms in Germany: better than their reputation? Why do patients with lower treatment urgency visit emergency rooms (ER)? Results of a patient survey in central emergency department/unit at a specialized hospital.
Emergency rooms in Germany: better than their reputation? Why do patients with lower treatment urgency visit emergency rooms (ER)? Results of a patient survey in central emergency department/unit at a specialized hospital.

Every year, about 20 million patients in Germany visit emergency units or are transferred to emergency units by emergency services and general practitioners. The reasons why patients prefer ER as first touch point are diverse and have not been investigated systematically from the patient's perspective so far. As numerous studies have shown, a majority of patients visiting the emergency units required only outpatient emergency treatment. Moreover, the costs incurred in the ER are not covered. Apparently, the system of physician’s emergency care established in Germany is not accepted by patients as intended.

In a hospital focusing on specialized care with 36,300 emergency patients per year, a patient survey was carried out in the central emergency department to investigate the reasons why patients visit the ER and do not use the provided outpatient care structures.

Study Design:
In the Central Emergency Department, an initial assessment by MTS (Manchester Triage System) was carried out with all patients who did not have an immediate doctor contact.
The survey period lasted 4 months, the questionnaires were issued to each patient with MTS category green or blue. The survey was anonymous and participation was voluntary.


In addition to the reasons for the idea and sociodemographic data were collected on a voluntary basis. The return rate of questionnaires was 10.7%.


Results:
57.5% of respondents were older than 40 years. From all respondents of MTS categories green and blue, 40.6% rated themselves a minimum to average life-threatening emergency. 52.7% of respondents had not been previously treated by a doctor. 70.1% have presented themselves in the ER. The 3 main reasons which led the patient to visit the emergency department:
1. "I think I'm getting better care in the ER (get all necessary investigations)" - 39.4%;
2. "I think the first point is the hospital" - 19.1%;
3. "The period when domestic / Specialist by a deadline takes too long" - 17.1%.

The survey results clearly express the view of the patients and can lead to a better understanding of the reasons why ER are visited in hospitals. Despite long waiting times, particularly for patients with low treatment urgencies, patients place the hospital emergency first in 60% of the cases. The own feeling as an emergency is more pronounced in the patients, as it is expected by the triage level. The statements of the patient in the survey can be regarded a representative sample as usual sociodemographic factors of the survey (age distribution, presentation days / times / Education) reflect the usual clientele of patients in the ZNA.
Thus, the expectation of the patients should be taken care of, and the in-hospital emergency care in Germany should be strengthened. It remains open to what extent, for example, information campaigns on the supply system in Germany can lead to a reduction of the treatments of patients in emergency rooms.

For the patient, a timely and customized emergency care appears to be important. Professional societies and politics in Germany will need to take care of this.

Bernadett ERDMANN (Wolfsburg, GERMANY)
17:00 - 17:10 #7816 - OP060 Intranasal Sufentanil versus Intravenous Morphine Sulfate in Pain Management of Patients with Extremity Trauma.
Intranasal Sufentanil versus Intravenous Morphine Sulfate in Pain Management of Patients with Extremity Trauma.

Introduction: Pain is one of the most common complaints of patients referred to emergency department (ED) and its control is one of the most important responsibilities of the physicians. The present study was designed, aiming to compare the efficiency of intranasal sufentanil and intravenous (IV) morphine sulfate in controlling extremity trauma patients' pain in ED. Methods: In the present clinical trial, extremity trauma cases referred to the ED of Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from October 2014 to March 2015 were randomly divided into 2 groups treated with intranasal sufentanil (0.3 μg/kg) and IV morphine sulfate (0.1 mg/kg) single-doses. Demographic data and information regarding the quality of pain control such as pain severity before intervention and 15, 30, and 60 minutes after intervention, and probable side effects were gathered using a checklist and compared between the 2 groups. Results: 88 patients with the mean age of 35.5 ± 14.8 years were included in the study (81.8% male). 44 patients received IV morphine sulfate and 44 got intranasal sufentanil. No significant difference was detected between the 2 groups regarding baseline characteristics. In addition, there was no significant difference in the groups regarding pain relief at different studied times (p = 0.12; F = 2.46; df: 1, 86). Success rate of the drugs also did not differ significantly at different studied times (p = 0.52). No significant difference was seen between the groups regarding side effects (p = 0.24). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it seems that intranasal sufentanil has a similar effect to IV morphine sulfate in rapid, efficient, and non-invasive pain control in patients with traumatic extremity injuries.

Ali ARHAMI DOLATABADI (Tehran, IRAN, ISLAMIC REPUBLIC), Memary ELHAM, Hamid KARIMAN, Majid SHOJAEE
17:10 - 17:20 #8128 - OP061 Sedation with nitrous oxide (N2O) in children, a clinical guide to implementation and use in everyday practice.
Sedation with nitrous oxide (N2O) in children, a clinical guide to implementation and use in everyday practice.

Introduction – In the emergency department (ED) and pediatric department (PD), minor procedures in children are often challenging due to anxiety and lack of cooperation by the child. Nitrous oxide (N2O) seems a suitable agent for procedural sedation (PSA). It has a rapid onset and offset, no fasting period is required and self-administration is possible. Although safety and efficacy were proven in international literature, PSA with inhaled N2O is only minimally used in Dutch hospitals. In this study we describe the implementation of procedural sedation with nitrous oxide in our hospital in a two year cohort.

 Methods –  All patients that underwent procedural sedation (PSA) with N2O (50%) in the emergency and pediatric department were retrospectively identified. Data on patient characteristics, type of procedure, depth of sedation and adverse events were recorded. PSA was performed using standardized pre-sedation assessment, monitoring during procedure and post-sedation discharge criteria. Concomitant use of systemic analgesia was contra-indicated. All medical staff was trained according to protocol, this included theoretical background training and supervision during the first five procedures. Knowledge of advanced life support was required. PSA could be executed by a well-trained nurse without supervision of a doctor. 

Results – During 2014 and 2015, 202 patients received PSA with inhaled N20, 48 patients were excluded due to missing data. 154 patients were included in this study. These were 86 boys and 68 girls with a mean age of 6,6 years (SD 3.9 years). Sedation was successful in children from the age of two years old. Procedures in which sedation was used; wound care (N=106), venous access (N=25), reduction of fracture (N=15), lumbar puncture (N=4), the administration of a plaster cast (N=2) and placement of a urine catheter (N=2).

97,4 percent of children had an ASA classification score of one. Mean duration of procedure was 17 minutes (SD 9,8 minutes).

Most reported side effect was laughing (N=57).There were no reported major adverse events. There were 16 reported cases in which comfort and suppression of anxiety during PSA were inadequate and the patient was uncomfortable during the procedure. There were seven reported cases in which the procedure could not be successfully completed. One procedure had to be aborted due to malfunction of  equipment. The other six procedures included; stitching of wounds to the face (N=3), placement of a urine catheter (N=2) and reduction of an incarcerated inguinal hernia (N=1). These procedures are known to be unpleasant and painful, especially in young children.

Conclusion– Sedation with nitrous oxide is safe, feasible and effective for both patient and medical staff in minor procedures in the emergency and pediatric department. In the vast majority (96.1%), sedation was successful. In more painful procedures, sedation without concomitant analgesia proved to be inadequate (N=6) and procedures could not be completed. For this reason the use of concomitant systemic analgesia with opiates was included in our protocol in 2016. Implementation of procedural sedation with N2O requires adequate training of medical staff and a close collaboration between the emergency and pediatric department.

Naomi PETERSEN (Amsterdam, THE NETHERLANDS), Femke GRESNIGT
17:20 - 17:30 #8201 - OP062 Factors associated with the development of chronic pain in trauma patients.
Factors associated with the development of chronic pain in trauma patients.

Introduction: In Canada, trauma injuries represent almost 200,000 hospital admissions per year. Depending on the type of trauma and other risk factors, a good proportion of patients will eventually develop mild to severe chronic pain. Fortunately, the early use of some treatments appears promising to prevent chronicity of post-traumatic acute pain. However, the research allowing the early identification of the subpopulation of trauma patients that may develop chronic pain is scarce and limits our capacity to test these preventive approaches.

Objective: To identify factors available at hospital admission associated with the development of chronic pain in a population of trauma patients.

Methods: In a cohort study performed on a registry of prospectively acquired data, we have included all patients 18 years and older admitted for injury in any of the 57 adult trauma centers in the province of Quebec (Canada) between 2004 and 2014. Patients who were either evaluated in specialized chronic pain clinics, diagnosed with chronic pain, and/or received at least 2 prescriptions of chronic pain medication 3 to 12 months post trauma were compared to patients who did not meet those criteria. Patients with a follow-up period lesser than 1-year and those with multiple trauma episodes were excluded.

Results: A total of 90 479 patients were retained. Mean age was 59.3 (±21.7), 53% were men, and the mean follow-up was 4.8 years (±2.4). The major causes of trauma were: falls (63%), motor vehicle accident (22%), as well as penetrating and blunt injuries (9%). We have identified 6172 patients (6.8%; 95CI:6.6%-7.0%) who were either evaluated in specialized chronic pain clinics, diagnosed with chronic pain, and/or received at least 2 prescriptions of chronic pain medication 3 to 12 months post trauma. After controlling for confounding factors, the variables that were associated with the development of chronic pain were: spine injury (OR=2.3; 95CI: 2.1-2.4), loss of consciousness (OR=1.7; 95CI: 1.5-2.0), nerves damage (OR=1.7; 95CI: 1.5-2.0), history of depression (OR=1.5; 95CI: 1.3-1.6), history of alcoholism (OR=1.4; 95CI: 1.2-1.7),  head injury (OR=0.62; 95CI: 0.56-0.68), multiple trauma (OR=1.4; 95CI: 1.3-1.5), and being a female (OR=1.2; 95CI: 1.1-1.3). Receiving operating characteristic curves derives from the model was evaluated at 0.70.

Conclusions: Despite low incidence of chronic pain development found in our trauma cohort registry, several significant risk factors were identified. Hospital admission screening of the trauma population at risk of developing chronic pain will allow the early testing of preventive approaches.

Raoul DAOUST (Montréal, CANADA), Jean PAQUET, Lynne MOORE, Jean-Marc CHAUNY, Sophie GOSSELIN, Jean-Marc MAC-THIONG, Marcel EMOND, Manon CHOINIÈRE, Gilles LAVIGNE
17:30 - 17:40 #8236 - OP063 Profesional practices concerning care limitations and end-of-life situation in an emergency department.
Profesional practices concerning care limitations and end-of-life situation in an emergency department.

Introduction: Emergency Departments (ED) are the front line of public health care system and are often confronted to end-of-life care. These situations are difficult and uncomfortable for patients, families as for medical staff. Leonetti law (2005) strengthened by Clayes Leonetti law (2016) forbids “unreasonable obstinacy” and frames decisions concerning means limitation or ending active therapeutic means. In this recent context, we wanted to assess professional practices concerning the decision making and medical management of end-of-life situations.

Material: We conducted a retrospective monocentric study from october 2015 to april 2016 in an ED of an academic hospital. Through medical charts, we included all patients that died in the ED or in the emergency hospitalization unit through the period and for whom a means' limitation decision had been taken.

Results: n=53 patients presented the inclusion criteria (0,1% of all visits). For 57% of these patients, the limitation decision wasn’t clearly written in the chart. 30% of these decisions were taken by a sole practitioner. In the first moments of their arrival in the ED, 28% of these patients had invasive yet inappropriate care. 55% of these patients were visiting the ED for the first time. 21% died in the first 4 hours after being admitted to the ED. We noticed wide heterogeneous pratices while managing dyspnea, pain, consciousness and sedation.

Conclusion: End-of-life situations are part of ED care. However care limitations are difficult decisions and are not easily and efficiently managed. Education is necessary for medical and paramedical staff in order to help those patients through these moments.

Guillaume FONS (Paris), Marie BALLESTER, Florence ATGER, Richard CHOCRON, Anne-Laure FERAL-PIERSSENS, Philippe JUVIN
 
17:40
17:40-18:40
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AWC
Award Ceremony

Award Ceremony

Moderators: Tom BEATTIE (UK), Lisa KURLAND (SWEDEN), Youri YORDANOV (Médecin) (Paris, FRANCE)
Top Abstracts / Falck Prize / EBEEM Diploma Ceremony / EYSA / EuSEM Fellowships / EMDM / SimWars
17:40 - 18:40 #7244 - OP118 Efficacy and safety of methoxyflurane analgesia in adult patients in the emergency department: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (STOP!).
OP118 Efficacy and safety of methoxyflurane analgesia in adult patients in the emergency department: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (STOP!).

Background/Introduction

Acute pain remains highly prevalent in the Emergency Department (ED) setting1,2, with many patients undertreated3. Low-dose methoxyflurane, self-administered by the patient via a handheld inhaler (Penthrox®, 3mL dose) is a fast-acting, non-narcotic analgesic agent that has been used in Australia for 20 years. Data outside of Australia are limited, therefore this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled UK study investigated the efficacy and safety of low-dose methoxyflurane analgesia for the treatment of acute pain in the ED setting.

 

Participants and Methods

Patients presenting to the ED with a pain score of 4-7 on the Numerical Rating Scale due to minor trauma (contusions, fractures, lacerations, etc) were randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive methoxyflurane (up to 6mL) or placebo (normal saline), both via a Penthrox® inhaler. Study medication was self-administered by the patient as required by inhaling from the device. Rescue medication (paracetamol/opioids) was available immediately upon request of the patient.

 

The primary efficacy endpoint was visual analogue scale (VAS) pain intensity. Changes from baseline were analysed using repeated-measures ANCOVA. Treatment effects were estimated as least squares mean differences between the treatment groups overall (primary analysis) and at each timepoint. Key secondary endpoints were time to first pain relief and time to request for rescue medication (compared using Cox proportional hazards model) and rescue medication use (yes/no) within 20 minutes of the start of treatment (compared using logistic regression). All analyses adjusted for baseline VAS score.  Patients had a 14-day post-treatment safety follow-up.

 

Results

300 adult and adolescent patients were enrolled; data are presented for the adult subgroup (N=203). Mean baseline VAS pain score was ~66mm in both groups. Mean change in VAS pain from baseline to 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes was greater for methoxyflurane (-20.7, -27.4, -33.3 and -34.8mm, respectively) than placebo (-8.0, -11.1, -12.3 and -15.2mm, respectively). Overall, there was a highly significant treatment difference (estimated treatment effect: -17.4mm; 95% CI: -22.3 to ‑12.5mm; p<0.0001). Median time to first pain relief was significantly shorter with methoxyflurane (5 minutes) compared with placebo (20 minutes) (hazard ratio: 2.32; 95% CI: 1.63, 3.30; p<0.0001). The proportion of patients who used rescue medication in the first 20 minutes was 2.0% for methoxyflurane and 22.8% for placebo (odds ratio: 0.07; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.29; p=0.0003). The proportion of patients requesting rescue medication at any time (prior to censoring) was lower for methoxyflurane (11.8%) than placebo (38.6%) (hazard ratio: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.44; p<0.0001); median time to request could not be estimated. Treatment-related adverse events (mostly dizziness/headache) were reported by 42% of patients receiving methoxyflurane and 15% of patients receiving placebo; none caused withdrawal and the majority were mild and transient.

 

Conclusions

The results of this study support the evidence from previous trials that low-dose methoxyflurane administered via the Penthrox® inhaler is a safe, efficacious and rapid-acting analgesic.

 

References

  1. Cordell et al. Am J Emerg Med 2002;20:165–169.
  2. Berben et al. Injury 2008;39:578–585.
  3. Pierik JGJ et al. Pain Med 2015;16:970-84.

®: PENTHROX is a registered trademark of MDI Limited.

Frank COFFEY (Nottigham, UK), Patrick DISSMANN, Kazim MIRZA, Mark LOMAX
17:40 - 18:40 #7460 - OP119 Short-time variation in available beds predicts admission rate among chest-pain patients independently of high-sensitivity troponin t, seasonal and daily variation.
OP119 Short-time variation in available beds predicts admission rate among chest-pain patients independently of high-sensitivity troponin t, seasonal and daily variation.

Introduction: Chest pain is a common symptom at the emergency department (ED) which often leads to admission for further investigation. Assessment algorithms aim to safely reduce the rate of admission but it is unknown if the number of available beds at the time of admission decision affect admission rate or the risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) after discharge. Purpose: To investigate whether number of available beds was associated to admission rate or 30-day MACE among chest pain patients in the ED. Methods: This was an observational study at two EDs between 1st of January 2013 to 14th of September 2015. All patients >18 years with chief complaint chest pain and at least one high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) measurment were included. Information on number of available beds at the short-time emergency wards and coronary care units was extracted every five minutes and the average during a 30-minute period was calculated for each patient, two thirds into their stay at the ED, when the admission decision usually occurs. Association between number of available beds (one standars deviation increase) and admission rate, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among admitted and 30-day MACE among discharged were studied with logistic regression together with sex, age, hs-cTnT>14 ng/L, ED site, season (winter as reference), visit-year (2013 as reference) and 24-hour variation (day, evening and night with day as reference). Results: Out of 24,730 patient visits, 6,873 were admitted out of which 1,134 were diagnosed with AMI. Among discharged, 70 patients had a 30-day MACE. The number of available beds varied in relation to the 24-hour period (p<0.001), season (p<0.001) and decreased yearly (p<0.001) during the study. Admission was independently associated to the number of beds (OR 1.11 CI95% 1.07-1.15), male sex (OR 1.52 CI95% 1.42-1.62), initial hs-cTnT>14 ng/L (OR 6.41 CI95% 5.93-6.94), age (OR 1.76 CI95% 1.69-1.83), year (OR 0.87 CI95% 0.81-0.94 for 2014 and 2015 respectively) and seeking the ED during spring or night (OR 1.15 CI95% 1.05-1.25 and OR 1.29 CI95% 1.17-1.43 respectively). AMI among admitted was more common among those with male sex (OR 1.48 CI95% 1.27-1.72), initial hs-cTnT>14 ng/L (OR 6.42 CI95% 5.38-7.65), seeking the ED during the evening (OR 0.82 CI95% 0.70-0.96) and 2015 as year of ED admission (OR 1.27 CI95% 1.06-1.51). Furthermore, initial hs-cTnT>14 ng/L (OR 7.01 CI95% 3.76-13.06), age (OR 2.45 CI95% 1.71-3.50) and male sex (OR 1.92 CI95% 1.15-3.21) were all associated to 30-day MACE. No relation between 30-day MACE and number of available beds was seen (p=n.s). Conclusions: The number of available beds was associated to admission rate idependent of other clinical information, including hs-cTnT, and may have affected the admission decision. No relation between available beds and 30-day MACE was seen. Further studies are needed on the causal relationship and optimal number of available beds for chest pain patients. 

Caroline JOHANSSON (Stockholm, SWEDEN), Anna PETTERSSON, Umut HEILBORN, Per SVENSSON
17:40 - 18:40 #8169 - OP120 Can the incorporation of co-morbidity information improve risk estimation in older people with major trauma?
OP120 Can the incorporation of co-morbidity information improve risk estimation in older people with major trauma?

Can the incorporation of co-morbidity information improve risk estimation in older people with major trauma?

Background: Large datasets from registries such as the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) facilitates the development of risk estimation systems for these patient populations. An initial analysis of the probability of survival (PS12) risk estimation system in trauma patients enrolled in TARN at our institution demonstrated excellent discrimination in younger individuals with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.94 (95% CI: 0.83 to 1.00). However, the ability of the system to estimate risk of short term mortality in older trauma patients was considerably lower with an AUROC of 0.64 (95% CI: 0.39 to 0.88).

Hypothesis: Risk estimation in older people could be improved through the incorporation of co-morbidity information.

Objective: To assess the improvement in performance of the system with the addition of co-morbidity information.

Study population: 869 major trauma patients enrolled in TARN at Saint Vincent’s University Hospital (SVUH), a tertiary referral urban university hospital, between Sept 2013 and Aug 2015.

Methods: PS12 estimates the risk of inpatient or 30-day survival in trauma patients based on Injury Severity Score (ISS), age, gender and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). The newer PS14 additionally includes co-morbidities, as a categorical variable defined by the number of co-morbidities present. PS12 and PS14 were calculated for each individual. Discrimination of each system was compared using AUROC. This was done separately for those aged under 65 years and those aged 65 years and over.

Results: In the 419 individuals aged under 65 years, both systems showed excellent discrimination with AUROC of 0.97 (95%CI: 0.94 to 1.00) for PS14 versus 0.96 (95%CI: 0.93 to 1.00) for PS12, p for difference = 0.23. In the 450 individuals aged 65 years and over, discrimination was significantly better in PS14 (AUROC 0.79 (95% CI: 0.70 to 0.88)) compared to PS12 (AUROC 0.71 (95%CI: 0.61 to 0.82)), p for difference <0.001. These findings were consistent when examining older age groups including those aged 75 to 84 years and those aged over 85. However, due to lack of power in some age groups, the differences did not reach statistical significance.

Conclusions: These results suggest that the current PS systems discriminate extremely well in younger people. It is unlikely that further refinements will result in meaningful improvements in risk estimation but may add complexity. For older individuals the addition of comorbidity has resulted in significant improvements. Further refinements including the addition of specific comorbidities, alcohol use and initial vital signs may yield further improvements in discrimination in this age group.  Simulated external validation, for example using 10-fold cross validation, may add further strength to these observations. 

Marie Therese COONEY, John CRONIN (Dublin, IRELAND), Justine JORDAN, Rachael DOYLE, David MENZIES
     
17:45-19:45
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E25
DGINA - General Assembly
Ordentliche Mitgliederversammlung der DGINA e.V. (Teilnahme nur für DGINA-Mitglieder)

DGINA - General Assembly
Ordentliche Mitgliederversammlung der DGINA e.V. (Teilnahme nur für DGINA-Mitglieder)

     
Tuesday 04 October
Time Room A-FESTSAAL Room B-ZEREMONIENSAAL Room C-PRINZ EUGEN SAAL Room D-FORUM Room E-GEHEIME RATSTUBE Room F-RITTERSAAL Room G-GARTENSAAL Room OP-SCHATZKAMMERSAAL
 
08:30
08:30-09:00
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KS2
Keynote Session 2

Keynote Session 2

Moderator: Wilhelm BEHRINGER (Director) (Jena, GERMANY)
08:30 - 09:00 How informatics is improving trauma care. John HOLCOMB (USA)
             
 
09:10
09:10-10:40
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A31
State of the Art
Disaster & Biohazards

State of the Art
Disaster & Biohazards

Moderators: Abdo KHOURY (PH) (Besançon, FRANCE), Luc MORTELMANS (PHYSICIAN) (Antwerp, BELGIUM)
09:10 - 09:40 Mass Civilian Shooting: The out of hospital phase. Amandine ABRIAT (urgentiste) (Paris, FRANCE)
09:40 - 10:10 Mass Civilian Shooting: The in hospital phase. Mathieu RAUX (Responsable d'unité) (PARIS, FRANCE)
10:10 - 10:40 Cooperation across Europe: European Medical corps and Emergency medical teams. Francesco DELLA CORTE (ITALY)
09:10-10:40
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B31
Austria, Germany, Switzerland Invites
Qualität

Austria, Germany, Switzerland Invites
Qualität

Moderators: Roland BINGISSER (Basel, SWITZERLAND), Harald DORMANN (GERMANY)
09:10 - 09:40 GeriQ: Der geriatrische Notfallpatient - Qualitätsindikatoren. Harald DORMANN (GERMANY), Susanne SCHUSTER (GERMANY)
09:40 - 10:10 Patientenbefragung - Standards in der Qualitätssicherung der Patientenzufriedenheit. Martin PIN (GERMANY)
10:10 - 10:40 Notaufnahmeprotokoll/AKTIN Projekt. Martin KULLA (Senior physician) (Ulm, GERMANY)
09:10-10:40
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C31
Philosophy & Controversies
P&C Cardiovascular 1

Philosophy & Controversies
P&C Cardiovascular 1

Moderators: Barbra BACKUS (dordrecht, THE NETHERLANDS), Ardavan KHOSHNOOD (Lund, SWEDEN)
09:10 - 09:40 What is an acceptable risk of missing an acute coronary syndrome? Barbra BACKUS (dordrecht, THE NETHERLANDS), Edd CARLTON (UK)
09:40 - 10:10 Should we cardiovert patients with stable atrial fibrillation in the ED? Hans DOMANOVITS (AUSTRIA), Martin MOECKEL (Berlin, GERMANY)
10:10 - 10:40 Do we need copeptin in the high sensitivity troponin era? Martin MOECKEL (Berlin, GERMANY), Edd CARLTON (UK)
09:10-10:40
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D31
Administration management
Patient Safety & Risk Management

Administration management
Patient Safety & Risk Management

Moderators: David BROWN (USA), Christian HOHENSTEIN (PHYSICIAN) (JENA, GERMANY)
09:10 - 09:40 Major mistakes for which you will pay. Greg HENRY (USA)
09:40 - 10:10 You can't fix what you don't measure: Improving care in the ED and beyond. Karin RHODES (USA)
10:10 - 10:40 Mitigating Risk in ED Patient Hand-offs. David BROWN (USA)
09:10-10:40
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E31
Research
Infectious Disease & Sepsis

Research
Infectious Disease & Sepsis

Moderators: Gregor PROSEN (MARIBOR, SLOVENIA), Tobias SCHILLING (ÄD) (Stuttgart, GERMANY)
09:10 - 09:40 Quality of ED sepsis care: Process of care indicators, standardized mortality ratios or the Hawthorne effect? Bas DE GROOT (Amsterdam, THE NETHERLANDS)
09:40 - 10:10 q SOFA and other Sepsis Scores: Really helpful for the Emergency Physician? Tobias SCHILLING (ÄD) (Stuttgart, GERMANY)
10:10 - 10:40 Prehospital and early ED diagnosis of sepsis. Jana SEBLOVA (Emergency Physician) (PRAGUE, CZECH REPUBLIC)
09:10-10:40
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F31
YEMD
Eye Opener Quiz

YEMD
Eye Opener Quiz

Moderators: Riccardo LETO (Chief of ED) (Overpelt, BELGIUM), Basak YILMAZ (Ankara, TURKEY)
09:10 - 09:40 Part 1: bizarre medicine. Basak YILMAZ (Ankara, TURKEY)
09:40 - 10:10 Part 2: for the nerds. Blair GRAHAM (Research Fellow) (Plymouth, UK)
10:10 - 10:40 Part 3: things you definitely shouldn't know. Senad TABAKOVIC (Zürich, SWITZERLAND)
09:10-10:40
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G31
EuSEM Nursing Track
Prehospital Emergency Nursing

EuSEM Nursing Track
Prehospital Emergency Nursing

Moderators: Luciano CLARIZIA (ITALY), Yves MAULE (MANAGER DE SOINS) (LIEGE, BELGIUM)
09:10 - 09:40 Preparing for the disaster. Mark TYLER (AUSTRALIA)
09:40 - 10:10 Prehospital trauma care: nursing interventions. Salvatore CASILLO (ITALY)
10:10 - 10:40 Detecting child maltreatment based on parental characteristics. Hester DIDERICH-LOLKES DE BEER (policy officer family maltreatment) (THE HAGUE, THE NETHERLANDS)
09:10-10:40
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OP31
Oral Papers 31

Oral Papers 31

Moderators: Al BEHCET (faculty speaker) (Gaziantep, TURKEY), Luca CARENZO (SIMULATION COMPETITION ONLY) (NOVARA, ITALY)
09:10 - 10:40 #5019 - OP064 Logging safeguarding concerns in paediatric emergency medicine: ticking the right boxes when going paperless.
Logging safeguarding concerns in paediatric emergency medicine: ticking the right boxes when going paperless.

Background

NICE CG 89 ‘Child maltreatment: when to suspect child maltreatment in under 16s’ (1) suggests that health professionals should consider safeguarding issues in all encounters with children, gives guidance on when to suspect abuse, and stresses the importance of documentation. The Emergency Department is a place where this is of particular importance as children often present with injuries that could be indicative of maltreatment, such as burns or head injuries. Therefore, all attendances should have a record of a safeguarding assessment stating whether the possibility of child abuse has been considered or suspected. Previous audits (2) have shown that the level of documentation of safeguarding assessments in the ED was very high, with an excess of 90% of children having safeguarding considerations documented. This level was achieved following the implementation of a written prompt in the paper based patient record. Since the last audit in 2013 the hospital has introduced a new electronic system of patient records, Epic. This re-audit aims to assess whether the high levels of documentation have been maintained after the implementation of this new system the safeguarding section of which will be briefly presented.

Methods

Electronic patient records of all Paediatric ED attendances during the week 01/02/16 to 08/02/16 were reviewed and checked as to whether clinical staff completed the required documentation of safeguarding assessments and to gather information about those with absent safeguarding assessments. Sample size: 414. Results wre compared to the previous audit performed in 2013.

Results

385 (92.1%) had a safeguarding assessment completed, in 29 (7.9%) cases the assessment was missing. Re-attenders (n=14) had no safeguarding assessment documented on the second attendance in 6 cases. Split into age groups, the percentage of assessments not completed ranged from 8.33% in the 6 - 10 year olds to 5% in the 1 - 5 year olds. 15 patients (3.6%) in whom safeguarding assessments were missing presented with diagnoses like burns, head or other injury.

Conclusion

Following the implementation of a new electronic system of patient record keeping and thus the removal of the previous ED paper based system with its well established prompts, documentation of presence (or absence) of safeguarding concerns in the Paediatric Emergency Department remains in excess of 90%. This is despite the fact that safeguarding assessments on Epic are not a compulsory documentation item, reflecting a positive culture of safeguarding awareness. Children who re-attended the ED were amongst those who were lacking safeguarding assessments when attending the second time but one coud argue that this may be appropriate in the vast majority of patients that re-attend within such a short time.  The current system is effective but still does not capture a proportion of patients that present with significant injuries.

Basia CHMIELEWSKA (Cambridge, UK), Peter HEINZ
09:10 - 10:40 #6184 - OP065 Do refugees pose a serious national public health threat? Incidence of communicable diseases amongst a representative cohort of 8.678 refugees in Germany.
Do refugees pose a serious national public health threat? Incidence of communicable diseases amongst a representative cohort of 8.678 refugees in Germany.

Introduction:

German immigration laws require refugees to undergo medical screening as part of the asylum application process. This consists of a self-reporting questionnaire, a physical examination and a tuberculosis screening. There appears to be some anxiety whether refugees pose a public health threat to the German population through higher than usual rates of communicable diseases. This study aims to assess the incidence of communicable diseases, i.e. head lice, scabies, hepatitis, HIV or tuberculosis amongst refugees.

 

Methods:

We collected data on communicable diseases of refugees living in holding camps in the County of Lippe, Germany. All refugees not having undergone a medical screening examination or parts thereof underwent a medical screening examination as part of the weekly refugee medicine clinics run by the emergency department. Demographical data including age, gender and country/region of origin as well as any notable findings during the self-reporting questionnaire, physical examination and tuberculosis screening were recorded. Tuberculosis screening consisted of either chest radiographs, interferon-gamma immuno-assay or a Mendel-Mantoux skin prick-test, or a combination of these, depending on age and/or pregnancy status.

 

Results:

The County of Lippe operates 6 refugee camps with a capacity of 70-700 refugees each. From October 2014 until March 2016 altogether 9,992 refugees were registered for medical examination with 8,678 actually attending (86.8%). Of these, 69.3% were male and 30.7% female. The mean age was 24 years. Most refugees originated from Western Asia (41.8%), followed by those coming from Balkan states (21.7%), Africa (8.3%) and former Soviet states (6.9%).

As part of tuberculosis screening 3,327 refugees underwent chest x-ray in our clinic, whereas 3,096 were x-rayed elsewhere. 1,192 refugees received interferon-gamma immuno-assay and 769 children under the age of 6 years received a Mendel-Mantoux skin prick-test. Due to a lack of supply of Mendel-Mantoux serum from December 2015 onwards in whole Europe, 123 children did not receive any tuberculosis screening at all.

Overall, only 66 refugees were found to have scabies (0.76%) and 49 (0.56%) were tested positive for head-lice (0.56%). In contrast, 676 refugees had a non-communicable yet relevant medical condition (7.78%) requiring follow-up. We found 50 of 8,524 screened refugees to have an abnormal tuberculosis screening result (0.59%). Of these, only 7 were confirmed to have active tuberculosis requiring standard combination therapy (0.08%) and 3 refugees required isolation due to open tuberculosis (0.04%). Interestingly 27 refugees were known to suffer from viral hepatitis (0.31%) and 7 reported to be HIV-positive (0.08%).

 

Discussion:

This study is the first to describe the incidence of notifiable/communicable diseases and tuberculosis amongst a representative sample of refugees coming to Germany. Although only 0.8% of the total refugees entering Germany were included, the results appear to be fairly comparable to the overall refugee population. The incidence of tuberculosis amongst refugees appears to be 11 times higher than for the resident German population. Nevertheless, the projected overall number of approximately 500 new tuberculosis cases amongst refugees compared to an overall national incidence of 5,895 new cases in 2015 does not seem to pose any serious public health threat.

Patrick DISSMANN (Detmold, GERMANY), Felix KOEHRING, Florian FISCHER
09:10 - 10:40 #7076 - OP066 Hyperpyrexia as a predictor for serious bacterial infection (SBI) in children – a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Hyperpyrexia as a predictor for serious bacterial infection (SBI) in children – a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Importance: Fever is one of the most common symptoms in children. It is not clear if children with high fever are at increased risk for serious bacterial infection (SBI). 

Objectives: To systematically review and to perform a meta-analysis, in order to determine whether children suffering from high fever are at high risk for SBI.

Data sources: The following databases were searched from their inception until the last week of December 2014: Embase (via Embase.com), Medline (via OvidSP) and Pubmed.

Study selection: Cohort and case control studies comparing the incidence of SBI in children with a temperature higher than 410C,  with children with fever of 410C or less, and children with a temperature higher than 400C, with children with fever of 400C or less.

Data extraction and synthesis: Based on a preliminary review, two reviewers independently pooled studies for detailed review using a structured data-collection form. We calculated the odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for SBI, assuming a random-effects model. A sub-group analysis was conducted based on age.

Main outcome and measures: SBI

Results: Ten studies met the inclusion criteria.  Only two studies compared children with temperature over 410C with children with lesser degree of fever. Children with temperature over 410C had higher risk for SBI (OR 1.96 95%CI 1.3-1.97). Nine studies reported on children with temperature over 400C. The summary end-point suggests an increased risk for SBI in children with high fever (OR 3.21 95% CI 1.67;6.22). When analyzing the studies reporting on young infants, the odds ratio for SBI in children with temperature over 400C was higher compared to infants with lower degree of fever (OR 6.3 95% CI 4.44;8.95). Four studies reported on older children; the odds ratio for SBI in children with high fever was only slightly higher than in children with lower degree of fever (OR 1.36 95% CI 1.16;1.61).

Conclusions and relevance: Young infants with temperature higher than 400C are at increased risk for SBI. Compared with children who have lower degree of fever, the risk of SBI in older children with temperature >400C is minimal.

Noa ROSENFELD-YEHOSHUA, Shiri BARKAN , Ibrahim ABU-KISHK, Meirav BOOCH, Ruth SUHAMI, Eran KOZER (Zerifin, ISRAEL)
09:10 - 10:40 #7503 - OP067 Gender differences in paediatric emergency medicine: a multicenter prospective observational study.
Gender differences in paediatric emergency medicine: a multicenter prospective observational study.

Introduction
The influence of gender on health and disease is increasingly being recognized. In emergency medicine, sex-specific differences are well described in adults, including the acute presentation of certain conditions, the epidemiology of illnesses and injuries, and the effects and side-effects of medications. Beside physiologic and biologic factors, gender-specific biases are found to influence physician’s treatment decisions. So far, little is known about how gender affects emergency care for children. The aim of this study was to assess the role of gender in presenting problem, disease management and outcome in children attending the emergency department(ED).

Methods
This study is part of the TrIAGE project, a prospective observational study in five ED’s in four European countries (the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Austria, Portugal). Data collection consists of routinely recorded patient data, automatically extracted from electronic medical records. Study sites are instructed in data collection and a minimum set of required variables. Data harmonization and quality checks were performed.  We included all consecutive children aged

Results
In total, 84,747 children under the age of 16 were included in the study, and 54.2% were male. In all 5 hospitals, the proportion of boys visiting the ED was higher than girls, ranging from 52.0 to 58.4%. The proportion of boys decreased with age, from 56.5% (range 52.3-61.4%) in children 12 years. Boys presented more often with trauma and limb problems (22.0% versus 19.7%), presented more often with high-urgent problems according to the Manchester Triage System (12.9% versus 10.6%) and were more often admitted (11.9% versus 10.6%). When adjusted for clinical parameters, diagnostics and therapy, and patient disposition, some differences between boys and girls remained. Girls were triaged less often with a high urgent triage category (OR 0.85, 95%CI 0.81-0.89). Moreover, in girls significantly more lab tests were performed in case of medical problems (OR 1.09, 95%CI 1.04-1.14) and more radiologic tests in case of trauma (OR 1.16, 95%CI 1.09-1.24). Girls were less likely to receive inhalation medication (OR 0.72, 95%CI 0.68-0.77), while overall there was no difference in oral or intravenous medications administered.

Conclusion
In childhood, boys attend the ED more often than girls, and this trend decreases with age. When adjusted for potential confounders, girls were triaged less often to a high urgency category. Moreover, some gender-based differences were found in diagnostics and management. Further research is needed to explore whether these findings are caused by differences in disease type, disease presentation, symptom severity or whether gender subconsciously plays a role in management decisions in children. 

Joany ZACHARIASSE (Rotterdam, THE NETHERLANDS), Dorine BORENSZTAJN, Claudio ALVES, Paulo FREITAS, Frank SMIT, Johan VAN DER LEI, Ewout STEYERBERG, Ian MACONOCHIE, Susanne GREBER-PLATZER, Henriëtte MOLL
09:10 - 10:40 #7598 - OP068 The first emergency physician driven diagnostic algorithm for acute vertigo showed very high negative predictive value for acute brain injury: the STANDING prospective study.
The first emergency physician driven diagnostic algorithm for acute vertigo showed very high negative predictive value for acute brain injury: the STANDING prospective study.

Background

Vertigo and unbalance are frequent complaints in emergency department (ED), often due to a benign disease. However, the possibility of an acute brain disease is not remote and vertigo assessment is usually time and resource consuming. We aimed to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of an ED driven diagnostic algorithm.

Methods

Consecutive adult patients presenting with vertigo/unbalance to a third level university hospital in Florence, from October 2015 to March 2016, were considered for the study. The STANDING is a four steps algorithm, which includes the discrimination between SponTAneous and positional Nystagmus, the evaluation of the Direction of the nystagmus, of the head Impulse test (HIT) and of the standinG position. Reliability of each step was analysed in a subset of patients by Cohen’s k calculation. The reference standard (central vertigo) was a composite of acute brain injury at initial head imaging or a diagnosis of stroke, demyelinating disease, neoplasm or other new-onset brain disease during 3 months follow-up, adjudicated by an independent panel of experts in vestibular disease and neuroimaging.

Results

Three hundred and fifty one patients were included with a mean age of 57.6±18 years, with a slight prevalence (59.5%) of females. We found an incidence of acute brain disease of 11.7% (95% CI 8.5%-15.5%). The leading cause was ischemic stroke (68.3%) followed by neoplastic disease (24.4%). Each step of the STANDING algorithm showed e good reliability; the second step, the analysis of the direction of nystagmus, showing the highest (0.95) and the HIT test the lowest (0.83) agreement. The overall accuracy of the test was good (87%, 95% CI 84-88%) showing good specificity (86%, 95% CI 84-86%), high sensitivity (95%, 95% CI 83-99%) and very high negative predictive value (99%, 95% CI 97-100%) for acute brain disease.

Conclusion

The STANDING diagnostic algorithm showed good reliability and high accuracy in excluding acute brain disease in the emergency setting. 

Simone VANNI, Claudia CASULA, Bigiarini SOFIA (FIGLINE VALDARNO, ), Peiman NAZERIAN, Cosimo CAVIGLIOLI, Pecci RUDI, Andrea PAVELLINI, Paolo VANNUCCHI, Stefano GRIFONI
09:10 - 10:40 #7633 - OP069 A NEW CATHETER FOR LARGE VEINS: A NEW WAY.
A NEW CATHETER FOR LARGE VEINS: A NEW WAY.

Background Availability of venous access for administering drugs and fluids in critically ill patients is a cornerstone of modern Emergency Medicine. In patients with difficult peripheral venous access, alternative techniques, such as the placement of a central venous catheter, require expertise and are invasive, expensive, time-consuming and prone to serious adverse events. The attempt to obtain vascular access placing a peripheral venous catheter under ultrasonographic guide has been sometimes performed in clinical practice, but only a few case reports are presented in literature. Despite an easy placement and absence of complications, insufficient length of the classical PVC (45mm) led to frequent early displacement. For these reasons, we plotted a new venous catheter (JLB®, Deltamed Inc.) to cannulate large bore veins and lead an observational convenience sampling study to test the security of device and eco-guided bedside technique of insertion, the cheapness of the catheter, the handiness of learning and use of it.

Study  We led a multi-center observational convenience sampling study to evaluate safety and effectiveness of JLB®. Patients were enrolled in 3 EM units, 2 ICU, 1 Internal Medicine ward. Data were collected from July 1st 2015 to April 15th 2016. Inclusion criteria were: age≥18, impossibility to obtain peripheral access, need for inotropes/TPN or patient's preference. The procedure was performed by attending physicians or EM residents under US guidance. We enrolled 250 patients; at present data were analyzed in 158 patient: 91 women, mean age 74,5 years ± 16,2 SD. 130 patients (82,3 %) had not any other peripheral access, 33 (20,9 %) need inotropes/TPN infusion, 6 (3,8 %) express preference. Mean procedure time (from disinfection to securing) was 207,7 s ± 12,4 SD. Early complications (<24h) occurred in 2 (1,3 %) patients, consisting in 1 soft-tissue hematoma and 1 atrial tachyarrhythmia. No major complications (such as PNX, major arrhythmia, infection) were reported. Mean duration time was 132,1 h ± 67,6 SD, occlusion/dislocation occurred in 11 cases (6,9 %).

Conclusion Our bedside device revealed to be fast to place. This new catheter is also safe since no major complication or clinical device-associated infection occured. Moreover, placement of this device doesn't need CXR to confirm placement and exclude PNX because is unlikely, but this task can be easily performed using US. Our device can represent an ideal technique for DIVA not needing advanced vital monitoring and in emergency settings.

Brugioni LUCIO, Elisabetta BERTELLINI, Marco BARCHETTI, Pietro MARTELLA, Vivoli DANIELA, Serena SCARABOTTINI, Francesca MORI (MODENA, ITALY), Davide Maria Francesco LUCCHESI, Francesco LUPPI, Francesco BORRELLI, Mirco RAVAZZINI, Elena CARELLA, Sergio CAMPANALE, Angelo TRICOLI, Antonella LANOTTE
09:10 - 10:40 #8051 - OP070 A Review of Emergency Department Patients with a Very High D-Dimer Level.
A Review of Emergency Department Patients with a Very High D-Dimer Level.

TITLE:  A Review of Emergency Department Patients with a Very High D-Dimer Level

 

INTRODUCTION

 

In a low risk patient a negative D-Dimer (DD) can be used to rule out suspected venous thromboembolism (VTE) and avoid advanced imaging tests.

 

Clinicians tend to view the DD result in a binary fashion - positive or negative. However DD is a fibrin degradation product and as such can correspond to clot burden. Therefore it is logical to suppose that we should not view a DD of, for example, 0.95mg/L the same a 9.5mg/L. In our study we analysed patients with very high DD results.

 

METHODS

 

This is a retrospective cohort study of patients who had a D-Dimer requested by the ED between September 2014 and July 2015.  We studied patients who had a D-Dimer result over 10 times upper limit of normal (i.e. >5mg/L). The parameters analysed were age, DD value, diagnosis, the presence of new/old malignancy and 6 month mortality.

 

RESULTS

 

2,060 patients had a D-Dimer sent during the study period, 104 had a result of >5mg/L. There were no notes available for two patients and there was one duplication. The overall positive diagnostic rate for VTE was 46.5% (47/101). In those patients with DD between 5-10mg/L, the incidence was 40.6% (24/59) and in those >10mg/L it was 54.8% (23/42). There were higher rates of proximal DVT (64% vs 50%) and bilateral/multiple PEs in the DD- >10mg/L versus 5-10mg/L groups. 22 patients had a known malignancy prior to testing,  there was a new diagnosis of malignancy in 3 patients. 6 month mortality rate was 19.8% (20/101), half of these had a known malignancy.

 

CONCLUSION 

 

Our results indicate that in those patients with a higher D-Dimer, there appeared to be a correlation between D-Dimer level and clot burden.  A very high result should give a clinician a higher index of suspicion to consider larger VTEs and possibly a more serious underlying diagnosis. 

David MONKS (Dublin, IRELAND), Neha SIDDIQUI , Precious NWAFOR, John CRONIN
09:10 - 10:40 #8154 - OP071 The burden of genetic diseases in a French pediatric emergency department.
The burden of genetic diseases in a French pediatric emergency department.

Background:

The prevalence of children with complex chronic conditions in pediatrics is increasing and their management is an important part of hospitalizations, emergency room visits and pediatric healthcare costs. Some of them are suffering from genetically determined diseases. Both group of diseases share part of their problems. In the literature, the impact of genetically determined diseases on pediatric emergency services is unclear.

 

Objectives:

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of genetically determined diseases in a pediatric emergency department and describe the features of their management.

 

Methods:

This was a prospective observational study performed in the pediatric emergency department of a French university Hospital receiving over 60,000 children annually. All children under 18 years old, visiting our pediatric emergency department for a medical complaint were included during five consecutive days in September 2014. Chronic diseases or malformations were classified according to the classification proposed by McCandless et al. Am J Hum Genet. 2004;74:121‑7. The study was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital. One family refuses to participate to the study.

 

Results:

Of the 454 children included, 39,5% of them had a disease or malformation genetically determined (categories I to IV, n = 179), of which 4.4% had a chromosomal or single-gene disorders such as sickle cell disease, hemophilia (IA), 6.4% had a multifactorial/polygenic disorder such as spina bifida, autism (IB), 7.1% had a disease or abnormality of heterogeneous cause, often genetic such as mastocytosis, migraine (IC) and 20.7% had an acquired chronic disease with genetic predisposition such as diabetes, asthma (III). Of these 179 patients, 83 (46%) visited the pediatric emergency department with a chief complaint related to their chronic condition. We observed more biology tests (40% versus 18%), more imaging test (32% versus 20%), longer length of stay (mediane 123 minutes versus 88 minutes), and higher hospitalization rate (32% versus 9%) in children with underlying conditions with strong genetic basis (IA + IB + IC). Similarly, the hospitalization rate was higher (37% versus 9%) in children with an acquired chronic disease with genetic predisposition.

 

Conclusions:

These results highlight the high frequency of patients suffering from complex chronic conditions, especially genetically determined diseases, in a pediatric emergencies department and the impact of such conditions on the care provided. These patients had particular characteristics that should lead to specifics treatments, and then a comprehensive and global approach of children with genetically determined diseases in pediatric emergencies is needed. This should be based on several axes of improving: training of professionals, scientific research, pharmacogenetics, support of families, the quality of care, and patient identification.

François ANGOULVANT (Paris), Béatrice SIMONNARD, Agathe APRAHAMIAN, Névine EL KHATIB, William CURTIS, Rémy CHOQUET, Gérard CHÉRON
09:10 - 10:40 #8157 - OP072 Prognostic value of bnp, ddım, mmp-9 and s100β levels of stroke patients in emergency department.
Prognostic value of bnp, ddım, mmp-9 and s100β levels of stroke patients in emergency department.

Background: Ischemic stroke is the leading cause of long term morbidity and mortality, which affects several hundred thousand people per year. Various biomarkers indicating neurologic damage have been developed. The biomarkers indicating neurologic damage will reduce the need for neurologist or radiologist consultation in emergencies, enabling to follow a more reliable way  in order to set the true diagnosis and determine treatment options in patients at risk. In addition, neurologic examination is not objective and may differ depending on a person's experience. With determination of an objective marker, a more accurate and reliable way will be followed in the diagnosis and treatment of stroke. It is believed that, a fast, simple and low-cost biomarker which provides information about brain tissue damage would be extremely beneficial. For this purpose; S100 calcium-binding protein B (S-100β), d-dimer (DDIM), matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) that show cerebral damage have been studied in early period stroke patients. The primary objective of this study is to measure the correlation between clinical severity and serum/plasma concentration of neuronal injury biomarkers in stroke patients.

Material & Methods: This prospective study was initiated with 63 patients having pre-diagnosis of stroke, but then 15 patients were excluded due to various reasons. All patients were undergone the necessary  laboratory and radiological examinations and treated in accordance with guidelines. Blood samples were collected at the first admission and after 48 hours, and S-100β, DDIM, MMP-9 and BNP values were measured.

Results: Of patients, 45.8 (n=22) were female with median age 70 (min=25, max=85). There were previous SVO in 25% (n=12), DM in 12.5% (n=6) DM, atherosclerosis in 31.3% (n=15), hyperlipidemia in 25% (n=12), COPD in 16.7% (n=8), renal failure in 2.1% (n=1), smoking in 37.5% (n=18) and alcohol abuse in 8.3% (n=4). On ECG ordered, 30 (62.5%) patients have sinus rhythm and 18 (37.5%) atrial fibrillation. Patients were hospitalized in the neurology clinic between 1-60 days (median: 9 days). From the patients followed-up, 11 (22.9%) died and  37 were (77.1%) discharged from the neurology clinic. Impairment of consciousness was more common in the patients who died (72.7%; n=8 vs. 35.1%;n=13, p=0.04). GCS was significantly lower in patients who died (n=11; mean=11.2±2.7) compared to those discharged (n=37; mean=13.3±2.8) (p=0.01). BNP (died:783.3±778 vs. discharged:268.7±377; p=0.002) and DDIM (died:2565.4±1512 vs. discharged:1547.2±1341.7; p=0.036) studied at the hour 0 were found to be significant in determination in-hospital mortality. Whereas, no significant difference was found in the parameters studied at the hour 48. MMP-9 values at the hour 0 were positively correlated with the days of hospitalization (pearson correlation:0.291; p=0.045).

Conclusion:In this study, we demonstrate that BNP and DDIM as markers of prognosis at the time of first admission in patients with ischemic stroke. MMP-9 level was significantly correlated with hospitalization time, although no significant difference was found in terms of mortality. 

Mustafa UZKESER (Erzurum, TURKEY), Abdullah Osman KOCAK, Lutfi OZEL, Mucahit EMET, Ilker AKBAS, Sahin ASLAN
 
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A32
Philosophy & Controversies
General EM

Philosophy & Controversies
General EM

Moderators: Murat ERSEL (TURKEY), Lisa KURLAND (SWEDEN)
11:10 - 11:40 Biomarkers: help or hindrance? Katrin HRUSKA (Farsta, SWEDEN)
11:40 - 12:10 Pain and suffering in the ED. Iain BEARDSELL (UK)
12:10 - 12:40 Non-specific symptoms in the ED. Lisa KURLAND (SWEDEN)
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B32
Austria, Germany, Switzerland Invites
Nicht-Invasive Beatmung - Spezial

Austria, Germany, Switzerland Invites
Nicht-Invasive Beatmung - Spezial

Moderators: Ulrich BÜRGI (SWITZERLAND), Harald DORMANN (GERMANY)
11:10 - 11:40 Präklinisch. Stefan PÖTZ (AUSTRIA)
11:40 - 12:10 Bei Herzinsuffizienz. Harald HERKNER (AUSTRIA)
12:10 - 12:40 Angst vor dem NIV Versagen - Präventivstrategien. Harald DORMANN (GERMANY)
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C32
Philosophy & Controversies
P&C Cardiovascular 2

Philosophy & Controversies
P&C Cardiovascular 2

Moderators: Rick BODY (UK), Said LARIBI (PU-PH, chef de service) (Tours, FRANCE)
11:10 - 11:40 Should we give oxygen to patients with acute myocardial infarction? Ardavan KHOSHNOOD (Lund, SWEDEN)
11:40 - 12:10 How do we disentangle COPD and heart failure? Said LARIBI (PU-PH, chef de service) (Tours, FRANCE)
12:10 - 12:40 How do we make rapid rule out strategies for acute coronary syndromes work? Barbra BACKUS (dordrecht, THE NETHERLANDS)
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D32
Administration management
ED Design: Innovations

Administration management
ED Design: Innovations

Moderators: Wilhelm BEHRINGER (Director) (Jena, GERMANY), Youri YORDANOV (Médecin) (Paris, FRANCE)
11:10 - 11:40 Lean Process Management in the Emergency Department: The Five Forces of Success. Wilfried VON EIFF (Muenster, GERMANY)
11:40 - 12:10 Efforts to reduce hospital admission rates from the ED. Youri YORDANOV (Médecin) (Paris, FRANCE)
12:10 - 12:40 Chief emergency officer: Between strategic healthcare management and operational caregiving. Christoph RASCHE (GERMANY)
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E32
Research
Disaster & Biohazards

Research
Disaster & Biohazards

Moderators: Kurt ANSEEUW (Medical doctor) (ANTWERP, BELGIUM), Cyril NOEL (Londres, UK)
11:10 - 11:40 Triage in Multiple site Mass Shooting: is it necessary? Benoît VIVIEN (Paris, FRANCE)
11:40 - 12:10 Triage in Mass Shooting : Any Role for the SWAT doctor ? Matthieu LANGLOIS (medecin) (Paris, FRANCE)
12:10 - 12:40 Toward a European guidance for Mass Casualties? Kurt ANSEEUW (Medical doctor) (ANTWERP, BELGIUM)
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F32
YEMD
Frontiers of emergency medicine: Podium discussion

YEMD
Frontiers of emergency medicine: Podium discussion

Moderators: Riccardo LETO (Chief of ED) (Overpelt, BELGIUM), Basak YILMAZ (Ankara, TURKEY)
Speakers: Roland BINGISSER (Basel, SWITZERLAND), Eric DRYVER (Consultant) (Lund, SWEDEN), Oktay ERAY (Speaker) (Antalya, TURKEY), Thomas PLAPPERT (Fulda, GERMANY)
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G32
EuSEM Nursing Track
Trauma Nursing

EuSEM Nursing Track
Trauma Nursing

Moderators: Hester DIDERICH-LOLKES DE BEER (policy officer family maltreatment) (THE HAGUE, THE NETHERLANDS), Ole-Petter VINJEVOLL (Trondheim, NORWAY)
11:10 - 11:40 Taking care of the severe injured patient: human factors. Bruce ARMSTRONG (UK)
11:40 - 12:10 Multisite Terroristic attacks in Brussels (B): a challenge? Yves MAULE (MANAGER DE SOINS) (LIEGE, BELGIUM)
12:10 - 12:40 Training staff in major trauma education. Bruce ARMSTRONG (UK)
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OP32
Oral Papers 32

Oral Papers 32

Moderators: Al BEHCET (faculty speaker) (Gaziantep, TURKEY), Cornelia HARTEL (Consultant in Emergency Medicine/ Director of Medical Education in Emergency Medicine) (Stockholm, SWEDEN)
11:10 - 12:40 #4588 - OP074 The Effect of Ketamine on Cerebral Physiology as detected by Cerebral Oximetry during rapid sequence intubation (RSI) of critically ill Pediatric patients.
The Effect of Ketamine on Cerebral Physiology as detected by Cerebral Oximetry during rapid sequence intubation (RSI) of critically ill Pediatric patients.

Ketamine is avoided in rapid sequence intubation (RSI) of trauma patients because of an assumption it causes increase intracranial pressure (ICP). However two recent studies showed  that there was no increase in intraocular pressure (IOP), and it was therefore assumed there was no increase in ICP either. An IOP change has never been shown to change cerebral physiology.  Cerebral oximetry studies have established it can correlate with acute alter cerebral physiology and ICP changes. The effect of ketamine on cerebral physiology in pediatric patients who have had respiratory failure or sepsis has not been studied.  Cerebral oximetry studies have shown normal hemispheric cerebral physiology rSO2  is 60-80% with a 10% mean variance. Abnormal cerebral physiology has been  demonstrated to be as  rSO2  < 60 or > 80 and/or side differences > 10.

 

Objective:

To analyze ketamine’s effect on cerebral physiology during RSI of patients with sepsis or respiratory failure by utilizing cerebral oximetry in the Pediatric ED (PED).

 

Methods:

An observational convenience study of patients intubated in the PED with sepsis or respiratory failure who had: bilateral cerebral oximetry (q 5 sec) placed and ketamine was used as an induction agent.  We analyzed rSO2 10 min before & then 10 and 20 min after ketamine along with cerebral blood volume index (CBVI) and compared to < 10% & 20% variance.  rSO2 side differences  > 10 and patients with rSO2 80 were analyzed as this is considered abnormal cerebral physiology. 

 

Results:

The maximum change on the left was 8.9%(SD+11.6%) and right was 8.7%(SD+9.7%).  Overall, the Left, Right rSO2, CBVI and heart rate changesat all points during data collection were less than 10% (p=0.99). Figure 1 

 

 

Conclusions:

Patients with sepsis or respiratory failure who underwent RSI with ketamine showed no alteration in their cerebral physiology based on cerebral oximetry.  The normal and abnormal cerebral oximetry (rSO2 & CBVI) for 10 and 20-minute changes were significantly < 10% variance. Since ketamine is used in adult trauma investigating ketamine’s effect on pediatric trauma cerebral physiology by cerebral oximetry is warranted. 

Thomas ABRAMO MD (Little Rock, USA), Samuel SELBY MD, Gregory ALBERT MD, Todd MAXSON, Jon ORSBORN MD, Nicholas PORTER MD, Elizabeth STORM MD, Zhuopei HU MS
11:10 - 12:40 #7063 - OP075 Reducing the pain of paediatric emergency department intravenous cannulation – comparison of a new local cooling device with topical anaesthetic cream.
Reducing the pain of paediatric emergency department intravenous cannulation – comparison of a new local cooling device with topical anaesthetic cream.

Background

Topical local anaesthetic creams are proven to reduce the pain and distress associated with intravenous cannulation in children. A major disadvantage of their use is the relatively long application time. A minimum of 30 minutes is required for LMX4TM (4% Lidocaine w/w cream) [Ferndale Pharmaceuticals Ltd], the most rapidly acting agent. CoolsenseTM [Coolsense Medical Ltd] is a relatively new, reusable device designed to produce immediate, transient local analgesia through rapid cooling of the skin surface. No study has yet assessed the effectiveness of CoolsenseTM use in the paediatric emergency department (PED).

 

Aims

To determine any difference in age-appropriate paediatric pain score, at the time of intravenous cannulation, following use of the CoolsenseTM device or LMX4TM cream. To describe the effect of each intervention on additional outcomes, such as time from decision to cannulate to performing the procedure, which may influence the decision to select a particular method for use in the PED.

 

Methods

Prospective, quasi-randomised study in a tertiary PED over 6 weeks (February – March 2016).

 

Results

175 patients were included (mean age 7.4 years). 80 were allocated to receive CoolsenseTM and 95 LMX4TM, on a week-by-week basis. When analysed by allocated intervention, the mean pain score at time of cannulation was significantly lower with CoolsenseTM than LMX4TM (2.5 vs. 3.8; p=0.006). Mean time from decision to cannulate to performing the procedure was significantly shorter with CoolsenseTM than LMX4TM (25.6 mins vs. 48.4 mins; p<0.0001). There was no significant difference in the number of successful first cannulation attempts (67% vs. 73%; p=0.23), or intervention-associated adverse effects (1.2% vs. 3.2%; p=0.39), between the two groups. Redness, vasoconstriction and increased anxiety were associated with LMX4TM application in a minority of cases.

 

Conclusions

The CoolsenseTM device performed better than LMX4TM cream at reducing the pain associated with intravenous cannulation in children. The immediate nature of its local analgesic effect means it significantly reduces the waiting time to cannulation. Both interventions produce similar first cannulation success rates and frequency of reported adverse effects. CoolsenseTM should be considered a viable alternative to topical anaesthetic cream for providing local analgesia in children requiring intravenous cannulation in the PED.

Vanessa MERRICK (Bedworth, UK), Jessica FARLOW, Anya WILSON, Rose SACCA, Elizabeth BARNES, Mary MCCASKILL
11:10 - 12:40 #7221 - OP076 Web-based tools for educating caregivers about childhood fever: a randomized controlled trial.
Web-based tools for educating caregivers about childhood fever: a randomized controlled trial.

Title: Web-based tools for educating caregivers about childhood fever: a randomized controlled trial. 

Introduction: Fever is a common reason for an emergency department (ED) visits and misconceptions abound. To date, educational strategies targeting caregivers have made little impact. Multimedia approaches to educate caregivers have proven effective in many childhood conditions. However, the utility of web-based interventions in caregivers has not been explored for childhood fever. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of an interactive web-based module (WBM), read-only website (ROW), and written and verbal information (SOC) to educate caregivers about fever in their children.

Methods: This was a parallel group, randomized, superiority trial at a pediatric ED in London, Ontario, Canada from December 2013 to January 2015. The caregivers of children 0-17 years presenting to the ED with either a chief complaint of fever or had a temperature greater than 38 C were included. Caregivers were randomized to a WBM, ROW, or SOC. Primary outcome was the gain score on a novel questionnaire testing the caregiver’s knowledge on the measurement and management of fever. Secondary outcome was the caregiver satisfaction with the interventions. Primary outcome was analyzed using ANOVA and contrast analysis using the Student’s t-test was performed if overall differences were found. Caregiver satisfaction scores were compared using the Student’s t-test.

Results: There were 77, 79, and 77 participants in the WBM, ROW, and SOC groups, respectively. Web-based interventions were associated with a significant mean (SD) pre-test to immediate post-test gain score of 3.5 (4.2) [95% CI: 2.5, 4.4] for WBM (p < 0.001) and 3.5 (4.1) [95% CI: 2.6, 4.4] for ROW (p < 0.001) in contrast to a non-significant gain score of 0.1 (2.7) [95% CI: -0.5, 0.7] for SOC. Mean (SD) caregiver satisfaction scores (out of 33) for the WBM, ROW, and SOC groups were 22.6 (3.2), 20.7 (4.3), and 17 (6.2). All groups were significantly different from one another in the following rank: WBM > ROW > SOC (95% CI WBM: 21.9, 23.4; ROW: 19.8, 21.7; SOC: 15.5, 18.5, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: In contrast to verbal and written information, web-based interventions are associated with significant improvements in caregiver knowledge about fever. A web-based module is associated with the greatest caregiver satisfaction and should be routinely used in the ED.

References:

Wallenstein MB, Schroeder AR, Hole MK, Ryan C, Fijalkowski N, Alvarez E, Carmichael SL. Fever literacy and fever phobia. Clinical Pediatrics. 2012; 52(3): 254-259.

Walsh A, Edwards H. Management of childhood fever by parents: Literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2006; 54(2): 217-227

Kobak KA, Stone WL, Wallace E, Warren Z, Swanson A, Robson K. A web- based tutorial for parents of young children with autism: Results from a pilot study. Telemedicine Journal & E-Health. 2011; 17(10): 804-808

Acknowledgements: The authors have no conflicts of interest relevant to this article

Natasha LEPORE (Cork, IRELAND), Lara HART, Naveen POONAI
11:10 - 12:40 #7285 - OP077 Paediatric distal radius and forearm fracture closed reduction - emergency department procedural sedation versus operating theatre manipulation under general anaesthesia.
Paediatric distal radius and forearm fracture closed reduction - emergency department procedural sedation versus operating theatre manipulation under general anaesthesia.

A prospective cohort study of manipulation and closed reduction of paediatric distal radius and forearm fractures - emergency department (ED) procedural sedation versus general anaesthesia in emergency theatre. Single centre study based at the Royal Hospital for Sick Children (RHSC), Edinburgh UK.

 

Background

Distal radius and forearm fractures are common injuries in the paediatric population.  In the subset of these injuries that demonstrate an unacceptable degree of angulation or displacement, closed reduction is the standard practice of care where instrumentation is not indicated. This may be performed under procedural sedation within the ED or under general anaesthesia (GA) in theatre. It is postulated that procedural sedation within the ED may reduce cost and time to treatment when compared to reduction under GA. However concerns currently exist that reduction under procedural sedation within the ED may be associated with increased anxiety and pain, poorer treatment outcomes and complications arising from sedation when compared with inpatient GA. This study aims to compare the outcomes for the closed reduction of forearm and distal radius paediatric fractures under procedural sedation in the ED to those reduced under GA in emergency theatre.

 

Methods

All patients presenting to RHSC ED from August 2015 with distal radius or forearm fractures appropriate for closed reduction were included. Tertiary referrals and any fractures requiring instrumentation were excluded. Allocation to ED procedural sedation was based on anticipated safety and was assessed by the supervising ED consultant using a departmental standard operating procedure. Sedation agents used varied according to sedationist preference but most commonly were a combination of propofol and opioid. Our measurable outcomes were time to reduction, complications secondary to general anaesthesia or procedural sedation, need for treatment revision, incidence of re-fracture or mal-union/non-union postoperatively.

 

Results

Over the initial 6-month period, 56 patients aged between 2 and 14 years were included; 43 forearm and 13 distal radius fractures. 34 fractures (61%) were reduced under procedural sedation in the ED, 22 (39%) under GA in theatre. There was a significant difference in mean time to procedure of 15 hours (procedural sedation mean time 3 hours, GA 18 hours; p<0.05). There was no difference in complication rate between ED sedation and inpatient GA (n=0) and ED reduction was not associated with an increased rate of reoperation (n=0). Re-fracture rates were comparable in both groups (n=1) and all fractures were united in an acceptable position at follow-up. We will increase the power of this study through a further 6 months of data collection. We are also assessing service user satisfaction and quantifying the financial savings associated with the procedural sedation treatment limb.

 

Conclusion

Our preliminary data indicates that ED procedural sedation is as effective as inpatient GA for the closed reduction of paediatric distal radius and forearm fractures in those deemed safe for sedation. It appears to provide a more rapid, efficient and cost-effective alternative to inpatient GA reduction. It has shown to significantly decrease time to reduction and avoids hospital admission and the use of emergency theatre slots.  

Fiona GILLIES (Edinburgh, UK), Gregor CAMPBELL-HEWSON, Nick BEATTIE
11:10 - 12:40 #7324 - OP078 Influences of clinical spectrum and cultural background on antibiotic prescription in febrile children. A European observational study in emergency care.
Influences of clinical spectrum and cultural background on antibiotic prescription in febrile children. A European observational study in emergency care.

On behalf of the SHIVER group (Studies in cHIldren with feVER) from Research in European Pediatric Emergency Medicine (REPEM) network.

Background

Fever is the most frequent reason for a child to attend pediatric emergency care (ED). We have a high antibiotic prescription rate in febrile children; often broad-spectrum.
The majority of febrile children, however, suffer from self-limiting illness; bacterial infections comprise pneumonia and urinary tract infections mostly. Aim: evaluating antibiotic prescription in febrile children at EDs focusing on variability among countries and clinical symptoms.

Methods

Design: Prospective observational multicenter study between October 2014-February 2016.
Population: Febrile children aged 1 month-16 years visiting the pediatric ED.
Outcomes: antibiotic prescription rate (primary); antibiotic type, geographical background, clinical symptoms (secondary). Data collection: each center registered clinical data and treatment (one randomly selected day per month, during 12 consecutive months).

Results

Preliminary results are based on 4544 children from 28 hospitals, 11 European countries. Median age was 2.4 years (25th–75th percentile 1.1–4.9); 2488 (55%) male. Working diagnosis was definite bacterial in 204 children (5%) and probable bacterial in 1181 (26%). Infections were located in upper airway most frequently (n=2777, 61%); followed by lower aiway (n=561, 12%) and enteric (n=506, 11%). The majority was managed ambulatory (n=3979, 88%). Antibiotics were prescribed in 1440 (32%), with (amino)penicillin (36%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (39%) most frequent; cephalosporins in 15%. Two countries could be classified into low MRSA prevalence of <5% (223 ED visits), 7 countries into MRSA prevalence 5-25% (3267 ED visits), and 2 countries into high MRSA prevalence of >25%  (1054 ED visits). Antibiotic use was 23% and 25% for low and intermediate MRSA prevalence countries, and 58% in countries with high MRSA prevalence rates. Small spectrum antibiotics were applied in 45% and 49% in low and intermediate MRSA prevalence countries respectively, but in only 17% for high MRSA prevalence countries. Antibiotic use was also related to younger age, the presence of abnormal vital signs and ill appearance, but not related to the presence of meningeal signs or petechiae. Diagnostic tests (serum-CRP, blood leukocyte count, urine dipstick and chestradiographs) were more frequently performed in those who had antibiotics prescribed. Results of chestradiographs or urine tests were not related to antibiotic prescription. A combination of clinical variables explained 4% of antibiotic prescription variation.

Conclusions In a multicenter study among European EDs, a minority of febrile children is at risk for bacterial infections. Antibiotics were prescribed in 32%, with (amino)penicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid most frequently. Antibiotic use in febrile children is most related to MRSA prevalence rates, but also to the clinical presentation. The performance of diagnostic tests, but not the result of chestradiographs or urinetests are related to higher antibiotic prescription rates. International best practices need to be identified for management of acute febrile children.

Elles VAN DER VOORT, Santi MINTEGI, Henriette MOLL, Alain GERVAIX, Rianne OOSTENBRINK (rotterdam, THE NETHERLANDS)
11:10 - 12:40 #7523 - OP079 Nurses’ gut feeling about serious illness in children visiting the emergency department.
Nurses’ gut feeling about serious illness in children visiting the emergency department.

Introduction

The recognition of children with time-sensitive conditions amidst the large group of children with benign or self-limiting illnesses remains a challenge at the emergency department (ED). Because children present to the ED with a wide spectrum of problems, it is unlikely that a single clinical feature, vital sign or diagnostic test can accurately rule in or rule out a serious condition in a child. “Gut feeling”, the intuition that something is wrong despite a reassuring clinical assessment, may be a promising tool to identify children with serious illness. A previous study reported that primary care physicians’ gut feeling increased the risk of serious infection in children. Little is known, however about the gut feeling of ED nurses. The aim of this study was to define determinants of nurses’ gut feeling at the ED and to assess its diagnostic value for the recognition of children with a serious illness.

Methods

The study is based on a prospective observational cohort of all children aged

Results

During the study period, we included 6390 children who attended the ED with a medical problem and had information about gut feeling documented. A gut feeling was present in 20.0% of these visits. Gut feeling was associated with triage urgency (OR 10.2, 95%CI 8.0-12.9 for urgency category 1 and 2 and OR 4.2, 95%CI 3.4-5.3 for urgency category 3), fever (OR 2.7, 95%CI 2.3-3.1) and the presence of abnormal vital signs (OR 1.6, 95%CI 1.4-1.9 for 1 abnormal vital sign and OR 3.6, 95%CI 2.9-4.3 for 2 or more abnormal vital signs). Moreover, a gut feeling occurred less frequent in self-referred patients (OR 0.6, 95%CI 0.5-0.7) and patients presenting outside office hours (OR 0.8, 95%CI 0.7-0.9). When adjusted for age, gender, triage urgency and fever or abnormal vital signs, presence of a gut feeling was significantly associated with ICU (OR 4.4, 95%CI 3.0-6.3), and hospital admission (4.1, 95%CI 3.5-4.8). Sensitivity of nurses’ gut feeling for the recognition of patients requiring ICU admission was 0.71 (0.63-0.79), and specificity 0.81 (0.80-0.82). Sensitivity for hospital admission was 0.48 (95%CI 0.45-0.52), and specificity 0.85 (95%CI 0.84-0.86).

Conclusion

Nurses’ gut feeling at the emergency department is associated with clinical and non-clinical factors. The presence of a gut feeling increases the risk of ICU or hospital admission, but is in itself not an accurate predictor. It is important to combine gut feeling with other clinical parameters to determine the severity of illness of a child.

Joany ZACHARIASSE (Rotterdam, THE NETHERLANDS), Dominique VAN DER LEE, Nienke SEIGER, Rianne OOSTENBRINK, Henriëtte MOLL
11:10 - 12:40 #7835 - OP080 Validation of a Predictive Model for Identifying Febrile Young Infants With Altered Urinalysis at Low Risk of Invasive Bacterial Infection.
Validation of a Predictive Model for Identifying Febrile Young Infants With Altered Urinalysis at Low Risk of Invasive Bacterial Infection.

Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common serious bacterial infection in infants less than 90 days of age. Guidelines recommend inpatient treatment under 60-90 days old, due to risk of complications. In 2010, a predictive model was published by Schnadower et al. trying to find a subgroup of patients with low risk of adverse outcomes. That model shown high accuracy, but for predicting risk of bacteremia secondary to UTI. In 2014, a new approach was published by Velasco et al. This new model did not focus not in patients with a positive urine culture, but in patients with an altered urine dipstick, trying to select a group of low risk of having a invasive bacterial infection (IBI). Sensitivity and negative predictive value of this model were 100%.

Aim of this study was to test the performance of the predictive model in a new sample of febrile infants with altered urine dipstick. 

Study design

Retrospective multicenter study including 9 Spanish hospitals. Febrile infants ≤90 days old with altered urinalysis (presence of leukocyturia and/or nitrituria) were included. According to our predictive model, an infant is classified as low-risk for IBI when meeting all the following: being well appearing at arrival to the emergency department, being >21 days old, having a procalcitonin value <0.5 ng/mL and a C-reactive protein value <20 mg/L. Patients were excluded if any of the data evaluated by the predictive model was missed, a blood culture was not performed or if informed consent was not given by the parents. Invasive bacterial infection (IBI) was defined as the isolation of a single pathogen in a blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture. IBI was considered as secondary to UTI if the same pathogen was isolated in the urine culture and in the blood or CSF culture

Results

Four hundred twenty-five febrile infants attended in the participant hospitals had an altered urine dipstick. After applying exclusion criteria, 391 (92%) patients were analysed. Mean age was 50.5 days old (SD 23.0), and 297 (69.9%) were male. Median hours of fever when attended in the PED was 4 (P25-P75: 2-12). Urine culture was positive in 346 (88.5%) patients, being Escherichia coli the most frequently isolated bacteria, in 302 (87.5) infants. Thirty (7.7%) patients were diagnosed as IBI. Among them, 28 had bacteremia, being 25 (89.3%) secondary to UTI. Two patients had meningitis, one due to E. coli and the other one growth Klebsiella oxytoca in both urine, blood and CSF culture.

According to the predictive model, 104 (26.6%) infants would have been classified as low-risk patients. Two low-risk patients (1.9%) presented an IBI vs 9.8% (p<0.05) of the infants classified as not low-risk patients, although 1 of them growth Moraxella catarrhalis, suspected of being a contaminant, even it was not defined as one in the study's protocol.

Conclusion

Outpatient management might be suitable for 1 of each 4 patients diagnosed as possible UTI, although limitations of the study make mandatory prospective validation prior its incorporation to clinical practice.

Roberto VELASCO (Laguna de Duero, SPAIN), Borja GOMEZ, Susanna HERNANDEZ-BOU, Andres GONZALEZ, Izaskun OLACIREGUI, Mercedes DE LA TORRE, Aris RIVAS, Alba RUBIO, Isabel DURAN
11:10 - 12:40 #8253 - OP081 Practice Variation In The Management Of Minor Head Trauma In Children In Europe. A REPEM Study.
Practice Variation In The Management Of Minor Head Trauma In Children In Europe. A REPEM Study.

BACKGROUND: Head injury is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in children. Earlier studies have described significant practice variation in the use of imaging after pediatric head trauma, with  evidence to suggest that pediatric emergency departments (EDs) have lower rates of imaging than general EDs. Computed tomography (CT) is the imaging modality more commonly used in the ED evaluation of children with head trauma. The use of CT, however, is not uniform across all EDs, and variation between clinicians and pediatric EDs  exists.and appears unrelated to the frequency of clinically important Traumatic Brain Injuries (ciTBIs).

OBJECTIVE: To describe the variation in use of imaging, observation and admission rate for children with minor head trauma (MHT) in Europe.

DESIGN: A 3 years retrospective chart review involving 17 pediatric EDs of 9 European countries was conducted. A structured data collection method was used. Inclusion criteria included children 18 years or less, history of trivial or MHT in the previous 24 hours from the evaluation in the ED. Data collected included demographic information, type of injury, mechanism of injury, type of imaging  used and rate of admission to the observation unit or ward.

RESULTS: We report the preliminary results of  9 centers. Of 6535 charts reviewed, 6493 (99.4%) were analyzed. The mean age was 55.5 months (SD 49.4). 60.2% of the patients were male, without significant differences between hospitals. CT and observation rates varied across hospitals respectively from 0.8% to 19.6% and 12.3%  to 41%. Main data about the management are shown in Table 1.

Hospital

                                             1          2           3          4           5            6            7           8                9

n                                      517      895        430       141       438       459       1190        515         1950

Minor HT                       91.5%   86.1%   70.2%   32.6%    82.0%   84.8%   82.6%    85.4%      63.6%

Craneal X-Ray                8.1%     1.9%    11.4%   18.3%    21.7%   18.6%     3.6%      0.4%       4.8%

Head CT                        2.2%     5.5%     2.1%     0.8%      4.6%   14.7%     3.0%    19.6%       2.9%

Observation Unit          24.1%    41.0%   17.9%   14.3%    30.1%   39.8%   23.5%    23.1%      12.3% 

Admitted (Ward/PICU)    0.5%     1.8%     1.2%     0.8%     0.2%     1.2%     2.9%     18.3%      7.5%

CiTBI                               0%     1.5%      0.7%     0.7%       0%      0.2%    0.4%          0%      0.5%

 

CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary results demonstrate a significant variation in the   management of MHT in Pediatric ED across Europe when considering the rate of imaging, observation and ward admission. The reason for this variability may be based on differing criteria used by clinicians to order imaging, differences in the patient populations presenting to the various departments or training of physicians staffing EDs in the different hospitals.

Roberto VELASCO (Laguna de Duero, SPAIN), Niccolo PARRI, Carmel MOORE, Federica D'ELIA, Liviana DA DALT, Zsolt BOGNAR, Ricardo FERNANDES, Patrick VAN DE VOORDE, Özlem TEKSAM, Merel BROERS, Santiago FERNANDEZ, Maider ALCALDE, Sergi PIÑOL, Anaida OBIETA, Javier GONZALEZ
 
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A33
State of the Art
Infectious Disease & Sepsis

State of the Art
Infectious Disease & Sepsis

Moderators: Philip D ANDERSON (Boston, USA), Edin ZELIHIC (Schweinfurt, GERMANY)
14:10 - 14:40 How to avoid end organ failure in septic shock. Christoph DODT (München, GERMANY)
14:40 - 15:10 Causes of sepsis in migrants from North Africa and Middle East. Murat ERSEL (TURKEY)
15:10 - 15:40 The new definition of Sepsis and Septic shock. Tobias SCHILLING (ÄD) (Stuttgart, GERMANY)
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B33
Austria, Germany, Switzerland Invites
Rekrutierung, Motivation

Austria, Germany, Switzerland Invites
Rekrutierung, Motivation

Moderators: Wilhelm BEHRINGER (Director) (Jena, GERMANY), Alexandra-Maria WARENITS (Vienna, FRANCE)
14:10 - 14:40 wie finde ich Personal ? Roland BINGISSER (Basel, SWITZERLAND)
14:40 - 15:10 wie binde ich Personal ? Wilhelm BEHRINGER (Director) (Jena, GERMANY)
15:10 - 15:40 wie bilde ich Personal ? Philip EISENBURGER (Head) (Vienna, AUSTRIA)
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C33
Philosophy & Controversies
P&C Neurological

Philosophy & Controversies
P&C Neurological

Moderators: Greg HENRY (USA), Christian HOHENSTEIN (PHYSICIAN) (JENA, GERMANY)
14:10 - 14:40 Do we ever need a neurologist in Vertigo? Greg HENRY (USA)
14:40 - 15:10 The Big 3: A concise and Practical Approach to Vertigo. Peter JOHNS (Speaker) (Ottawa, CANADA)
15:10 - 15:40 Stroke mimic - how much should we fool around with the painless aortic dissection? David CARR (Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine) (Toronto, CANADA)
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D33
Philosophy & Controversies
Disaster & Biohazards - European Preparedness

Philosophy & Controversies
Disaster & Biohazards - European Preparedness

Moderators: Francesco DELLA CORTE (ITALY), Matthieu LANGLOIS (medecin) (Paris, FRANCE)
14:10 - 14:40 New Terrorism: Anything to learn from the military? Charles STEWART (Tulsa, OK, USA)
14:40 - 15:10 Mass shooting: is it a matter of scoop and run? Kurt ANSEEUW (Medical doctor) (ANTWERP, BELGIUM)
15:10 - 15:40 Terrorist attacks: the same model throughout the years? Ives HUBLOUE (Chair) (Brussels, BELGIUM)
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E33
Research
Cardiovascular

Research
Cardiovascular

Moderators: Edd CARLTON (UK), Lisa KURLAND (SWEDEN)
14:10 - 14:40 Risk stratifying patients with chest pain: what's best? Edd CARLTON (UK)
14:40 - 15:10 War on troponinitis: How to beat the plague. Rick BODY (UK)
15:10 - 15:40 Evidence-based management of heart failure: an update for 2016. Said LARIBI (PU-PH, chef de service) (Tours, FRANCE)
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F33
YEMD
How to teach decision making in the ER

YEMD
How to teach decision making in the ER

Moderators: Roberta PETRINO (Head of department) (Italie, ITALY), Senad TABAKOVIC (Zürich, SWITZERLAND)
14:10 - 14:40 10 commandments in emergency medicine. André GRIES (Medical Director) (Leipzig, GERMANY)
14:40 - 15:10 Decision-making as an essential non-technical skill for emergency physicians. Anna SPITERI (Consultant) (Malta, MALTA)
15:10 - 15:40 Making decisions in the Ed: strategies to cope with pressure, cognitive errors and human conditions. Roberta PETRINO (Head of department) (Italie, ITALY)
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G33
EuSEM Nursing Track
Emergency Nursing Education

EuSEM Nursing Track
Emergency Nursing Education

Moderators: Jochen BERGS (Post-doctoral researcher) (Hasselt, BELGIUM), Petra VALK-ZWICKL (SWITZERLAND)
14:10 - 14:40 Emergency Nursing education in Australia. Mark TYLER (AUSTRALIA)
14:40 - 15:10 Educating the future emergency nurse: professional competence and development. Thordis K. THORSTEINSDOTTIR (Associate Professor) (Reykjavik, ICELAND)
15:10 - 15:40 Development of an e-learning program to increase knowledge and awareness for the recognition of elderly abuse in the ED. Sivera BERBEN (research coordinator) (Nijmegen, THE NETHERLANDS)
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OP33
Oral Papers 33

Oral Papers 33

Moderators: Luca CARENZO (SIMULATION COMPETITION ONLY) (NOVARA, ITALY), Kim GEYBELS (Emergency and prehospital physician) (Overpelt, BELGIUM)
14:10 - 14:20 #7104 - OP082 Evaluation of a management tool for fever of unknown origin in infants younger than 3 months in the Emergency Department.
Evaluation of a management tool for fever of unknown origin in infants younger than 3 months in the Emergency Department.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE

Management of infants younger than three months old presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) with fever of unknown origin remains a difficult challenge for clinicians. Prenatal Group B Streptococcus screening and recently developed vaccinations changed the occurrence and epidemiology of serious bacterial infections (SBI) in this population. An evidence-based guideline was developed for use in the Paediatric ED of a tertiary university hospital in Brussels.

The purpose of this study is to examine the accuracy of this guideline to detect SBI, to search for the infectious agents in this population, and to analyse physicians' compliance to the guideline.

PATIENTS AND METHODS

All infants younger than three months old who presented to the ED with fever without clinical source, between January 1, 2012 and November 15, 2013 were eligible to include. All anamnestic and clinical data, laboratory test and culture results, chest X-ray findings, treatments and clinical outcomes were obtained from digital medical records, and retrospectively analysed.

RESULTS

From 31713 paediatric patients who presented to the Paediatric ED over 23 months' time, 1592 (5%) were under three months old, of whom 287 (18%) had fever of unknown origin. Median age was 42 days (range 6–90 days), 159 were boys (55%), and 16 (5.5%) had a history of prematurity.

Diagnostic screening categorised 143 infants (49.8%) as high-risk for SBI, of whom 26 (18%) had confirmed SBI. In 144 infants (50.2%) categorised as low-risk, no SBI was detected.

In 122/287 infants (42%), a microbiological source was found: 96/287 (33%) had a viral infection, 16/287 (5.5%) had a urinary tract infection (UTI), and 10/287 (3.5%) had a bacterial pneumonia. In the majority of infants (n=165/287; 58%), no pathogen was detected. The most frequently detected pathogens were Escherichia coli (mostly in urine) and Enterovirus (mostly in cerebrospinal fluid).

Most infants (n=279/287; 97%) were admitted to the hospital, of 8 patients (3%) parents refused admittance. In 62% (n=178/287), empiric antibiotherapy was initiated. In the high-risk group, all infants were treated; in the low-risk group 35/144 (24%) infants received intravenous antibiotics. In 11 cases (3.8%) acyclovir was added.

One infant died following septic shock after peritonitis due to bowel perforation.

Many non-adherences to the guideline were detected: in 14 infants (5%) no blood culture was obtained, only 35/287 urine samples (12%) were obtained in a sterile collection, 19% (n=56) did not undergo lumbar punction, and 3% (n=8) did not have a chest X-ray. Most infants (n=185/287 or 64%) were not screened for Bordetella pertussis. In the low-risk group, 20% (n=35/178) received antibiotics although the guideline recommended differently.

CONCLUSIONS

This study indicates that in 9% of infants presenting to the ED with fever without source an SBI was detected. Most common infections were of viral origin, most common SBI were UTI. Adding standard screening for Bordetella pertussis to the guideline is recommended. Given these results, the compliance of physicians to the evidence-based guideline should be improved, and attention is needed regarding sterile urine collection and antibiotic policy in the low-risk group.

Andy DE LEEUW (Lennik, BELGIUM), Gerlant VAN BERLAER, Dominique BULCKAERT, Ives HUBLOUE
14:20 - 14:30 #7234 - OP083 Diagnosing teenage pregnancy in ED: When to test.
Diagnosing teenage pregnancy in ED: When to test.

Background: Adolescent girls presenting to emergency departments (ED) with abdominal pain are a common presentation. Pregnancy is one differential diagnosis amongst many but if missed can have serious consequences. The UK is one of the European countries with the highest rate of teenage pregnancies with large regional variations.  4.5% of all deliveries are to mothers aged 18 or younger (31,000 p.a.). There is limited guidance on when to screen for pregnancy in this age group. In our study we audited practice in a cohort of adolescent girls presenting to a tertiary teaching hospital ED with abdominal pain following a review of the literature.

Methods: Resource websites of RCPCH (UK), RCEM (UK), AAP (US), NHS Improving Quality (UK) and Pubmed were searched for protocols and guidelines. All female attendances aged between their 12th and 18th birthday with a presenting problem of abdominal pain between October 2015 and January 2016 were identified and the electronic records reviewed. Data was collected on whether a menstrual history was taken, sexual activity, pregnancy testing and final diagnosis and disposal.

Results: A total of 124 ED attendances by 98 patients were identified. One 16 year old girl was found to be pregnant on testing with suspected ectopic pregnancy. 27% of attendances did not have a pregnancy test, when excluding pre-menarchal patients this rate dropped to 25%. 14 and 15 year olds had a pregnancy test result documented in only 60% of cases. Of those patients not tested, 12% went to theatre and 14.7% were exposed to ionising radiation including CT scans. Sexual activity was asked about in only 25% of cases but did not impact on the rate of testing. Menstrual history was documented in 66% of attendances. 12% of attendances who were not tested had no definitive diagnosis on discharge from the ED.

Conclusion: Detection of teenage pregnancy is important. There are recommendations for testing in risk groups but this is not universally implemented. A number of factors account for substandard practice as highlighted in our cohort and we present current latest recommendations and propose a management algorithm.

Marcus Y. L. SIM (Cambridge, UK), Peter HEINZ
14:30 - 14:40 #7237 - OP084 What is the coagulopathies' impact on arrival at the hospital in severe trauma patients initially cared for by prehospital medical teams? A retrospective observational study.
What is the coagulopathies' impact on arrival at the hospital in severe trauma patients initially cared for by prehospital medical teams? A retrospective observational study.

Introduction: Pre-hospital severe trauma patients' (STP) clotting disorders are early and worsen their prognosis. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence of coagulopathy and to explore the existence of statistical associations between the presence of coagulopathy and other characteristics gathered from STPs cared for by prehospital medical teams in urban areas.

Material and method: This was a retrospective observational study.  The inclusion criterias were patients cared for hemorrhages by prehospital medical teams, transported to a hospital recovery room, and for whom the initial hospital hemostasis record sheet was available. The pre-hospital variables recorded were 1. Epidemiological (age, gender, circumstances) 2. Paraclinical and biological (shock-index, Glasgow scale score, blood lactate values) 3. Therapeutic (intubation, tranexamic acid and/or catecholamines administration) 4. Time from "prehospital medical team engagement to recovery room arrival. The hospital variables were the early biological results (prothrombin time (PT)). The analysis of results was gathered and then multivariated using STATA 14.0 ®.

Results: Over 11 months, including 1570 medical transports, 156 (10%) were STPs.   For 72 of these 156 STPs, initial hospital hemostasis record could be found. For these 72 (100%) included, the median age was 33 years, IQR [26-44], with 63 (88%) men. The trauma was linked to either a public highway accident (n=42 or 58%) or penetrative weapon wound (n=19) or defenestration (n=11). The initial shock-index was >1 in 9 (12.5%) cases. The patients were intubated in 10 (14%) cases, received catecholamine in 2 (3%) cases and received pre-hospital tranexamic in 22 (31%) cases. The median "prehospital medical team engagement-recovery arrival" time was 64 min (IQR [52-78]). On hospital arrival, 15 (21%) STPs had a PT<70%. .

In univariate analysis, the hospital PT tended to be correlated with pre-hospital lactate values (p=0.06). In multivariate analysis, we found an association between hospital PT <70% and respectively: pre-hospital shock index >1 (p=0.02), the elderly (p=0.02), and pelvis injury (p=0.04).

 

Discussion: Clotting disorders were found in one in five despite currently proper care.  The study continues on a larger cohort taking into account survival. It also constitutes the reference group of a pre-post study. The "after" period will be to administer lyophilized plasma at the pre-hospital phase. 

Marilyn FRANCHIN (PARIS), Sabine LEMOINE, Isabelle KLEIN, Benoit FRATTINI, Olga MAURIN, Rudy TITREVILLE, Daniel JOST, Jean Pierre TOURTIER
14:40 - 14:50 #7242 - OP085 Simulation-based trial of crisis checklists in the emergency department: a pilot study.
Simulation-based trial of crisis checklists in the emergency department: a pilot study.

Background: Checklists improve the management of crises in simulated operating rooms and intensive care units. Crisis checklists have not been evaluated in the emergency department (ED) setting. Checklists may not necessarily have the same value when used in the actual working environment as opposed to a simulation center.

Aim: The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate crisis checklists using in-situ simulations in an actual ED.

Methods: Checklists of key emergency treatments were developed for eight crises:anaphylaxis, hemorrhagic chock, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, beta-blocker and/or calcium antagonist poisoning, poisoning with a membrane stabilizing agent, status epilepticus, severe sepsis, increased intracranial pressure.The content of the checklists was based on international guidelines and other authoritative sources.Emergency care teams working in the ED of Lund, Sweden, were randomized to manage simulated crises with or without access to these checklists, for a total of 16 simulations lasting 10-12 minutes. Time from scenario start to key treatment delivery was independently measured by two observers. Each crisis featured between 7 and 11 key treatments.Checklist user-friendliness was evaluated using a questionnaire.

Results: The median percentage of treatments carried out was 83% (range 38-100%) with checklist access versus 44% (range 15-86%) without (p = 0.03). One simulation needed to be prematurely terminated due to clinical care requirements and subsequently repeated. Of the 36 participants who had checklist access, 26 (72%) felt that the checklist helped them manage the case. Almost all participants, 67 of 71 (94%), would want the checklists used if they were the patient.

Interpretation: Studying crisis checklists in an actual ED is feasible. The pilot study results suggest that checklists may improve the care of critically ill patients in the ED.

Eric DRYVER (LUND, SWEDEN), Charlotte ODEVALL, Anders BERGENFELZ, Ulf EKELUND
14:50 - 15:00 #7546 - OP086 Hygiene in the emergency medical services – A systematic review.
Hygiene in the emergency medical services – A systematic review.

Introduction Infections caused by microbial contamination in healthcare settings result in increased morbidity, mortality and economic burden. Hygiene in the emergency medical service is challenged due to the non-static environment with limited access to cleaning equipment etc.  The personnel are working in varying environments e.g. retirement homes, industrial farms or at roadsides after a car incident, often with little time to prepare the acute care and treatment. In addition, continually patient courses lead to limited time to clean and prepare the ambulance in-between patient courses, thus posing a risk of transferring infection. Knowledge of bacterial contamination in environment, on medical equipment and the personnel and related challenges is therefore substantial, thus future hygiene interventions can be organized and effectuated according to evidence (1, 2). The aim of this review is to create a systematic summary of the current evidence concerning hygiene in the emergency medical service focusing on 1) environmental contamination, 2) cleaning interventions and 3) personnel compliance. Methods A scoping review including English or Scandinavian literature, were performed in PubMed Central (PMC) from March to April 2016. At least two of the investigators decided the relevance of each report, and all inclusions/exclusions were unanimous, and the articles not blinded.  Results We found documentation of environmental contamination by several different pathogenic bacteria, on a wide variety of equipment and materials within the ambulance environment and limited effect of conventional cleaning, and risk of cross contamination. Furthermore, hygiene compliance appears challenged on a number of aspects e.g. hand- and uniform hygiene, cleaning and disinfection procedures etc. Conclusion Hygiene in the emergency medical service appear challenged on several aspects. This review reveal risk of infection due to environmental contamination by pathogens and lack of personnel compliance, thus underpinning a necessity of focus on prehospital hygiene and future research in order to secure evidence-based practice. 

Heidi Storm VIKKE (Kolding, DENMARK), Matthias GIEBNER, Hans Jørn KOLMOS
15:00 - 15:10 #7580 - OP087 Are parent-uploaded You-tube videos of unwell children a useful source of information for other parents?
Are parent-uploaded You-tube videos of unwell children a useful source of information for other parents?

BACKGROUND – YouTube, the third most popular website in the world, is a vast repository of user-uploaded video content and a potential source of freely accessible medical information. To our knowledge no study has identified or focused on parent uploaded videos which describe illness in their children.  

OBJECTIVE – to be able to describe the quantity, quality and use of videos featuring unwell children posted on YouTube by their parents, and the implications for and use of these videos in educating parents.

METHODS – Croup and dehydration were the two medical conditions used for comparison.  YouTube was searched for videos using the search terms ‘croup’ and ‘dehydration’ from servers based in the United Kingdom (UK) and the Netherlands on October 6, 2015. The first 400 videos were searched and videos which clearly had been uploaded by parents or caregivers selected for evaluation. Videos created by doctors or by educational institutions were excluded. 
The included videos were analysed independently by two research students and two paediatricians for different characteristics (duration, likes/dislikes, number of views) and technical quality (using the validated VRS system with a total maximum score of 5 to rate light, sound, angle, resolution and duration). 
Independently of this, each video was assessed for whether it represented a good clinical example of the condition or not.

RESULTS – for the condition croup there were 40 videos which met the criteria for inclusion after 400 videos had been screened. The 40 corresponding videos had a wide range number of views (142 – 121928). Out of 40 videos, 14 (35%) were judged to be a good clinical example. Only 7 of these 14 videos were also found to be of high technical quality, meaning that 7 of the videos judged by the study team to be a ‘good clinical example’ were of poor technical quality.

For the condition dehydration a total of 28 videos met the criteria for inclusion. 2 of 28 (7%) parent uploaded videos were judged to be a good clinical example. Both these videos had good technical quality (score 4-5). 

In most videos of both conditions, the reason for upload was unclear. 

CONCLUSION – Useful and high quality videos do exist for the condition croup (a clearly defined condition), but this was not the case for dehydration (a vaguer symptom). Some of the videos for croup could be used as educational material. However, these videos will not always be obvious to those searching and it can be hard to find these informative videos in the large amount of information available. 
Conversely, parents could be confused by apparently high technical quality videos (which have good light, sound and picture quality), which are not in fact good clinical examples. 
Further research into reason for uploading should be undertaken to understand why videos are uploaded which could be beneficial for understanding parents’ health seeking needs. YouTube could be a useful information source for parents if clearly guided.

Knight KATIE, Dorothy M VAN LEEUWEN (Rotterdam, THE NETHERLANDS), Oostenbrink RIANNE, Damian ROLAND, Moll HENERIETTE
15:10 - 15:20 #7845 - OP088 EMS systems´comparison across the cases.
EMS systems´comparison across the cases.

Background

The study compares pathways for the same patient conditions of different Emergency Medical Services from 17 European Nations. These cases were designed as urgent but not life threatening emergencies: A simple laceration, an adult experiencing an asthma attack, a patient with lower back pain, a caller having cough and chest pain, an elderly after a fall, a patient with fever and a senior in need to have a urinary catheter change.

 

Participants and methods

Services in Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom participated in the study. The seven case scenarios have been answered via questionnaire or personal interview during participation in field ambulance work.

•Results

There is a high degree of variation in steering the patient into different medical pathways via phone evaluation or on scene assessments between the different services that have been researched. Overall, in the observed institutions there is a tendency to treat and release patients if ambulance providers also have a nursing or community/advanced paramedic background, combined with standardized assessment protocols or if there are general practitioners systematically involved. Some services have a strict ‘transport to the hospital strategy’ whereas others have a ‘hear and refer or treat’ or ‘see, treat and release’ response.

Discussion/conclusion

Ambulance services fulfill primary care tasks in all nations. If there is no common strategy developed with traditional primary care providers such as general 

Christoph REDELSTEINER (Wien, AUSTRIA)
15:20 - 15:30 #8101 - OP089 Appropriateness of utilization of a physician-staffed rescue helicopter in Austria.
Appropriateness of utilization of a physician-staffed rescue helicopter in Austria.

Background: Physician-staffed rescue helicopters are a high-end and very expensive resource of limited availability, therefore a deliberate dispatch system is of paramount importance. This retrospective observational study aims to evaluate how often the use of a helicopter was justified at a single rescue helicopter base in southern Austria.

Methods: Austria operates a dense network of ground-based physician-staffed prehospital response units and an additional coverage with rescue helicopters during daylight conditions. The protocol sheets and electronic records of the rescue helicopter base in Graz, Austria of a one-year time period were screened and entered into a database. The respective helicopter serves a population of about 900,000 people and 9,000 square kilometers covering both heavily populated urban areas, rural areas and poorly accessible mountain regions and can thus be viewed as representative for a large part of Austria´s territory. Three aspects of helicopter deployment were considered: rapid transport priority to a maximum care hospital according to the emergency physician´s diagnosis, use of the helicopter for extrication purposes and in inaccessible areas and the provision of invasive prehospital medical treatment provided by the specialized aeromedical crew. A scoring system incorporating these three aspects was generated to evaluate whether the utilization of the helicopter was justified or whether the call could have been attended to by a ground-based crew. Interhospital transfer missions and missions which were cancelled en-route were excluded from the analysis.

Results: From July 1st, 2014 until June 30th, 2015 1043 primary missions were the helicopter landed and attended to a call were registered. In 43,8% of those cases, there was no evidence of any benefit of the deployment of the helicopter versus a ground-based physician response unit (e.g. non-life threatening medical condition in close proximity to a ground-based crew). In the other 56,2%, we found at least some indication of an advantage of helicopter utilization. In 31,7% of all cases, there was a clearly comprehensible advantage of the helicopter as a rescue vehicle (e.g. severe multiple trauma in a poorly accessible mountainous area).

Conclusion: Despite the limitations of retrospective reviews, this study suggests that a large fraction of calls attended to by aeromedical crews could have been resolved employing ground-based emergency crews. Since rescue helicopters are a scarce and expensive resource, further studies to investigate the reasons for our findings are warranted and an audit system of feedback and quality control seems advisable.

Richard REZAR (Graz, AUSTRIA), Gilbert SANDNER, Barbara HALLMANN, Stefan HESCHL, Geza GEMES
15:30 - 15:40 #8173 - OP090 Effect of vertical location on survival outcomes for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Singapore.
Effect of vertical location on survival outcomes for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Singapore.

Background: A large proportion of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in Singapore (OHCA) occur in high-rise residential buildings.[1] This study aims to investigate the effect of the vertical location (floor level of apartment building) at which patients collapse from cardiac arrest, on survival outcomes and response times.

Participants and methods: A retrospective study was done based on data obtained from the Singapore cohort of the Pan Asia Resuscitation Outcome Study (PAROS). OHCA data from January 2012 to December 2014 were used. All OHCA patients conveyed by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and confirmed by the absence of pulse, unresponsiveness and apnea were included. All OHCA cases occurred in Singapore. OHCA cases with incomplete data on vertical location were excluded. Primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge or to 30 days post cardiac arrest. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS V9.3 (SAS Inc., Cary NC, USA) and expressed in terms of counts and percentages, odd ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval, mean and the standard deviation (SD) as well as p-value.

Results: A total of 5114 OHCA cases met the inclusion criteria for this study. 76 cases (1.5%) had missing vertical location data and were excluded. Out of the 5038 OHCA cases analyzed, 1482 (29.4%) cases occurred at ground level, 41 (0.8%) cases occurred at basement levels and 3515 (69.8%) cases occurred at ≥ 2nd floor level. 3653 out of 5038 cases (72.5%) occurred in home residences. The response time (in minutes) from time of ambulance arrival on scene to patient contact by EMS for cases that occurred at basement levels (mean 3.32 [SD 4.24]) and cases that occurred at ≥ 2nd floor level (mean 2.53 [SD 1.66]) are both significantly higher (p<0.001) than those that occurred at ground level (mean 1.67 [SD 1.99]). Survival outcomes for OHCA patients were poorer as the vertical location increases away from ground. For every 1 floor increase in vertical distance from ground, OHCA was 4% less likely to result in survival (OR 0.96 [0.92 – 0.99]). OHCA was also 3% less likely to be witnessed (OR 0.97 [0.96 – 0.98]), 1% less likely to have bystander CPR performed (OR 0.99 [0.98 – 1.00]), and 16% less likely to have bystander AED applied (OR 0.84 [0.79 – 0.89]) for every level increment in vertical distance from ground. First arrest rhythm was also 7% less likely to be shockable at every floor increment (OR 0.93 [0.92 – 0.95]. Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) on scene or enroute was 3% less likely to happen (OR 0.97 [0.94 – 0.99] and 3.5% less likely to be maintained at the ED [OR 0.97 [0.94 – 1.00] for every increase in vertical floor distance from ground.

Conclusion: There is significant effect of vertical location on survival outcomes for OHCA in Singapore. Interventions aimed at improving access to OHCA patients in high vertical floors need to be investigated.

[1] Goh, E.S., Liang, B., Fook-Chong, S. et al. Effect of location of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest on survival outcomes. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2013;42:437–444.

Tracy LIAN (Singapore, SINGAPORE), John ALLEN, Swee Han LIM, Nur SHAHIDAH, Yih Yng NG, Nausheen DOCTOR, Benjamin LEONG, Han Nee GAN, Desmond MAO, Michael CHIA, Si Oon CHEAH, Lai Peng THAM, Marcus ONG
 
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A34
State of the Art
Cardiovascular

State of the Art
Cardiovascular

Moderators: Barbra BACKUS (dordrecht, THE NETHERLANDS), Ardavan KHOSHNOOD (Lund, SWEDEN)
16:10 - 16:40 Advances in the emergency management of heart failure. Martin MOECKEL (Berlin, GERMANY)
16:40 - 17:10 Management of Recent-onset Atrial Fibrillation and Flutter (RAFF): Time for the ED to take Control. Hans DOMANOVITS (AUSTRIA)
17:10 - 17:40 Acute coronary syndromes diagnosis, version 2.0. Rick BODY (UK)
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B34
Austria, Germany, Switzerland Invites
Ethik

Austria, Germany, Switzerland Invites
Ethik

Moderators: Friedrich PRISCHL (AUSTRIA), Dominik ROTH (vienna, AUSTRIA)
16:10 - 16:40 Umgang mit Angehörigen bei Reanimation. Markus WEHLER (GERMANY)
16:40 - 17:10 AND/DNR. Maria KLETEČKA-PULKER (AUSTRIA)
17:10 - 17:40 Tips und Tricks für das Überbringen schlechter Nachrichten. David HÖRBURGER (Physician internal medicine) (St. Gallen, SWITZERLAND)
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C34
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P&C Infectious Disease & Sepsis

Philosophy & Controversies
P&C Infectious Disease & Sepsis

Moderators: Christoph DODT (München, GERMANY), Patrick PLAISANCE (Paris, FRANCE)
16:10 - 16:40 Metabolic Failure in Sepsis – Consequences for the Emergency Treatment? Edin ZELIHIC (Schweinfurt, GERMANY)
16:40 - 17:10 Biomarkers in ED sepsis care. Stuck in square one? Bas DE GROOT (Amsterdam, THE NETHERLANDS)
17:10 - 17:40 Antibiotics in the ED, are we killing patients? Yuri VAN DER DOES (Rotterdam, THE NETHERLANDS)
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EUSEM meets ESA

Moderators: Gaby GURMAN (ISRAEL), Marc SABBE (Medical staff member) (Leuven, BELGIUM)
16:10 - 16:40 How to attract a young physician to a young profession. Gaby GURMAN (ISRAEL)
16:40 - 17:10 Emancipation from surgery, how did that work? Clemens KILL (PHYSICIAN) (Marburg, GERMANY)
17:10 - 17:40 How to attract a young physician to a young profession. Gaby GURMAN (ISRAEL)
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Research
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Research
Neurological

Moderators: Christian HOHENSTEIN (PHYSICIAN) (JENA, GERMANY), Carsten KLINGNER (GERMANY)
16:10 - 16:40 Scientific basis for neuro intervention in stroke. Mauro GALLITELLI (ITALY)
16:40 - 17:10 Telestroke - a frontier in the globalization era. Carsten KLINGNER (GERMANY)
17:10 - 17:40 Limbic Encephalitis - a differential diagnosis in the young psychotic patient. David CARR (Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine) (Toronto, CANADA)
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Dark side of publishing

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Dark side of publishing

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16:10 - 16:40 Detecting pitfalls when reading medical literature. Harald HERKNER (AUSTRIA)
16:40 - 17:10 Sham, bogus and predatory journals. Colin GRAHAM (Hong Kong, HONG KONG)
17:10 - 17:40 Ethical issues in research. Luis GARCIA-CASTRILLO (Espagne, SPAIN)
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G34
EuSEM Nursing Track
Emergency Nursing Research

EuSEM Nursing Track
Emergency Nursing Research

Moderators: Frans DE VOEGHT (THE NETHERLANDS), Gudbörg PÁLSDOTTIR (ICELAND)
16:10 - 16:40 Emergency Nursing Research: Why? How? Christien VAN DER LINDEN (THE NETHERLANDS)
16:40 - 17:10 Applying research into emergency nursing – examples from Iceland. Thordis K. THORSTEINSDOTTIR (Associate Professor) (Reykjavik, ICELAND)
17:10 - 17:40 Thinking outside the box: a few things I have learned from other fields of research. Jochen BERGS (Post-doctoral researcher) (Hasselt, BELGIUM)
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OP34
Oral Papers 34

Oral Papers 34

Moderators: Hayette MOUSSAOUI (Emergency Physician) (London, UK), Cyril NOEL (Londres, UK)
16:10 - 16:20 #7054 - OP091 Striving for Balance.
Striving for Balance.

Background: New nurses in the prehospital emergency care service are a precious and valuable resource, however they enter a challenging environment and the risk of clinical errors is increased. The transition from novice to proficient has been described as a process of becoming. An evolutionary journey that, although not always linear or strictly progressive, is ultimately transformative. This transformational journey has been well described in students becoming professionals in intrahospital context. Little is known however about the experience of being new in the prehospital setting, where a novice prehospital care nurse work with the sole medical responsibility of the patients, with no doctor and often without an experienced nurse to ask for support when difficult situations emerge.

Aim: This study aimed to deepening the understanding of newly hired ambulance nurses experiences of the first year of employment in the Emergency Medical Service, EMS.

Method: Data were generated from 13 semi-structured interviews with newly hired prehospital emergency care nurses, PECN’s, from seven districts representing rural, urban and suburban areas in Sweden. Analysis was a latent inductive qualitative content analysis.

Result: The findings show that being new is experienced as Striving for balance in internal expectations and external conditions and can be described with the three generic categories; Reflecting on the own ability, Searching for identity and Strategies for learning.

This study adds to the knowledge about being new in the EMS and illuminates the need for further research in how to support novice PECN’s strive for balance in this context.

Anna HORBERG (Stenhamra, SWEDEN), Veronica LINDSTROM, Susanne KALÉN , Max SCHEJA , Veronica VICENTE
16:20 - 16:30 #7078 - OP092 Multicentre validation of AMPDS code with ICU admission and 30 day mortality.
Multicentre validation of AMPDS code with ICU admission and 30 day mortality.

Introduction

Algorithim based dispatch codes are widely used amongst ambulance services to prioritise dispatch of ambulance resources. This prioritisation is based on perceived urgency at the time of dispatch. There is little described in the literature about how this perceived level of urgency at ambulance dispatch relates to long term outcome.

Aim

To determine whether the AMPDS dispatch code was a predictor of a composite outcome of mortality within 30 days and/or ICU admission within two days.

Methods

All adult patients attended to by ten Scottish Ambulance Service (SAS) paramedics working across 5 centres.over a 13-month period. Data for all patients in the study was obtained from the electronic records via the SAS Data Warehouse. This data was then matched with the receiving Intensive Care Units and hospital information systems to ascertain outcome.

Results

A total of 1900 patients were available for analysis. Complete data on AMPDS code and outcome was available for 1895/1900 (99.7%).

The mean age of subjects in the study was 61.6 years (95% CI 60.7 to 62.6) with 50.5% of subjects being male gender.

Regarding outcome, 0.3% of subjects were admitted to an Intensive Care Unit within 48 hours and 4.9% of subjects died within 30 days of the initial ambulance call. The combined outcome of ICU admission within 48 hours or death within 30 days contained 5.0% of all subjects. Some subjects were in both of these groups.

There were a total of 191 different AMPDS codes used to dispatch an ambulance resource to the subjects in our study.

24 of 191 codes had more than 20 subjects dispatched. In this group of 20 codes the combined outcome measure again varied between 0 and 17.9% with a median of 3.5%.

9 of the 24 codes, covering 270 subjects, had a 10% or greater rate of the combined outcome measure of ICU admission within 48 hours or death within 30 days.

10 of the 24 codes, covering 364 subjects, had no subjects associated with a combined outcome measure of ICU admission within 48 hours or death within 30 days.

Discussion

 

This data is the first to link initial AMPDS coding to medium term outcomes such as ICU admission or 30 day mortality. Firstly the data from our study shows that this is feasible.

 

We also show that there is a wide variation in outcomes according to AMPDS code, Some codes, such as cardiac arrest, are associated with a high incidence of adverse outcome,. Some other less specific codes such as sick person/unwell are also associated with a high incidence of adverse outcome.

 

Conversely, some codes have no adverse outcomes associated with them. Although these are based on low absolute numbers, this may support down grading or regarding of some dispatch codes.

 

These findings will require replication in a much bigger cohort to confirm its accuracy at an acceptable level, however they open the possibility of basing dispatch codes based on hard outcomes such as ICU admission or 30 day mortality, rather than just immediate outcomes.

Alasdair CORFIELD (Paisley, UK), Rooney KEVIN, Kelly PAUL, Stewart ELAINE, Silcock DANNY
16:30 - 16:40 #7162 - OP093 Practice study on the use of Gamma-OH in pre-hospital emergency medicine.
Practice study on the use of Gamma-OH in pre-hospital emergency medicine.

Introduction: Nearly 50 years after its discovery, Gamma-OH (GOH) is used less and less in pre-hospital emergency medicine. Yet it offers good hemodynamic tolerance, is not much of a respiratory depressant and is easy to use in extra-hospital situations. In the absence of recent practice studies, we determined reporting its most frequent indications in the current pre-hospital setting as the main objective. Secondary objectives were to assess compliance with proper use, associated anesthetics and the occurrence of complications.

 Material and methods: Retrospective monocenteric practice study in a pre-hospital emergency medical service with 6 mobile intensive care units (MICU). Inclusion criteria: all patients who received GOH administration in a pre-hospital situation. Data collected from medical observation sheets were epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic (indication and dose of Gamma-OH administered, associated hypnotic and/or analgesic treatments) and safety (adverse events, complications from anesthetics).

 Results and Discussion: From 01/01/2015 to 12/31/2015, 111 patients were included, with a mean age of 51 years [3-91] and 81 (73%) men. Prescription of GOH was related to: in 61 (55%) cases, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after cardiac arrest; in 19 (17%) cases, coma; in 17 (15.3%) cases, severe trauma, including 9 associated with severe head trauma (SHT); in 7 (6.3%) cases, an isolated SHT; in 6 (5.4%) cases, acute respiratory distress with reduced consciousness; and in one case, a burn patient. Note that among the severe trauma patients there were 4 victims of multiple ballistic wounds in the November 13 attacks that received maintenance dose of GOH after tracheal intubation using rapid sequence induction.

After tracheal intubation, maintenance of sedation was performed by GOH alone in 26 (23.4%) cases; by GOH associated with sufentanil in 27 (24%) cases and GOH+midazolam+sufentanil in 54 (48.6%) cases. In adults (n=109), the initial dose was 60 mg/kg in the majority of cases (85%) as recommended, and 30 mg/kg in 10% of cases. This administration was followed by a second half-dose injection in 16 (14%) cases. No anaphylactic complications were reported. Only 2 episodes of hypotension were observed in patients who received it with midazolam. 

Conclusion: Because of its ease of use and a low complication rate, Gamma-OH proves even today to be a relevant product in pre-hospital situations or in disaster medicine. Gamma-OH remains in favour with our MICU physicians, particularly in cases of ROSC after cardiac arrest or severe trauma. These preferences are explained by facilitating the management of anesthesia, especially during long and difficult transportation by stretcher. A prospective study should be started to compare it to other products.

 

Amandine ABRIAT (Paris), Michael LEMAIRE, Daniel JOST, René BIHANNIC, Michel BIGNAND, Jean-Pierre TOURTIER
16:40 - 16:50 #7195 - OP094 Is there a relationship between the mode of transport to the hospital and the deadline for the first imagery of stroke ?
Is there a relationship between the mode of transport to the hospital and the deadline for the first imagery of stroke ?

Introduction. The referral of cerebrovascular accident patients (CVA) to neurovascular units (NVU) has improved the prognosis of said patients. Imaging (CT or MRI) must be systematically carried out on arrival at the hospital. The aim of this study was to evaluate in urban areas of high population density the time between stroke onset and the completion of the 1st brain imaging, according to the transportation of patients to the hospital. 

 

Materials and methods: This was a prospective observational study including all patients hospitalized in NVUs of a large metropolis. Data collection involved patient characteristics (age, gender), their means of arrival in the service: personal vehicle (PV), private ambulance (PA), professional rescuers (PR), emergency physician (EP); time of CVA onset and, first arrival in care, 1st brain imaging, at the beginning of early thrombolysis if carried out. The different times were reported by their median [interquartile range]. Comparison of times made use of a median test (STATA® 14.0)

 

Results.  From the June 1st to 30, 2015, 554 patients (with the average age of 69 + 15 years, 306 men) were admitted in 13 NVUs in the studied geographic area. The average "CVA-1st imaging" times were 550 [128-559] minutes in case of personal transportation (n=141), 236 [144-510] min by private ambulance (n=99), 167 [105-325] min. by professional basic life support (BLS) teams (n=220), 180 [135-154] min by a medical team (n=41), 69 [45-70] minutes in case of intra-hospital transfer (n=23).

Transient Ischemic Attackpatients favored a personal mode of transport; hemorrhagic CVA, BLS teams transport; ischemic CVA, a medical team tied with the rescuers.

 

Discussion. The time between the 1st symptoms and carrying out the 1st imaging doubled when patients used their personal transportation versus that of institutional care. Awareness campaigns for institutional care in case of onset of CVA signs should continue to be carried out.

 

Laure ALHANATI (PARIS), Stéphane DUBOURDIEU, Laurence SZTULMAN, Daniel JOST, Guillaume CASSOURRET, Eric RAMDANI, Michel BIGNAND, Jean Pierre TOURTIER
16:50 - 17:00 #7815 - OP095 A qualitative approach to evaluating the global barriers of International Emergency Medicine development.
A qualitative approach to evaluating the global barriers of International Emergency Medicine development.

Study Objectives The ACEP International Ambassador Program was developed as a venue for international experts to provide the current status and progress of Emergency Medicine (EM) in their assigned countries. An annual one-day conference was created to convene the ambassadors and allow for collaboration in order to reach the common interest of advancing emergency care. Our objective was to analyze the major perceived barriers for the evolution of the specialty.

Methods Open-ended interviews were conducted during the program’s annual conference and collated from 2013-2015. ACEP International Ambassadors (N=75), who represent over 60 countries, were divided into focus groups through break-out sessions. Interviews were centered on thematic topics, including barriers encountered by stage of EM development; local, regional, and international needs for EM development; and barriers and needs of International Emergency Medicine (IEM) education. Data collection took place in real-time using scribes and subsequently grouped into key themes and findings. An inductive approach to data analysis was used to identify barriers for the evolution of EM abroad.

Results Ambassadors represented 83 countries which accounted for almost 50% of the world’s nations. The definition of EM is very country specific. Identifying local stakeholders in each country that would advocate for EM can be difficult. Even though the motivations of local governments are difficult to recognize at times, the involvement of Ministers of Health, public officials, and local leaders are an essential part in advancing the specialty. Furthermore, international organizations could provide quality control that allows for the development of EM through a process of merit. A heterogeneous curriculum and lack of knowledge of EM as a specialty has been a major challenge for residency programs. Centralizing educational resources can reduce duplication of efforts and would benefit educational processes for EM residency programs and health personnel.

Conclusion International Emergency Medicine remains underdeveloped and there still is not a clear definition of EM as a specialty. The scope of practice of EM abroad is still not widely recognized, which further increases the difficulty of its evolution. The indispensable expansion of EM will be exponential with the support of regional leaders to form a unique identity of the specialty. These leaders play a vital role in standardization and communication, while serving as catalysts in resolving shared concerns. It is important to attempt to professionalize IEM education. With the support from ACEP and IFEM, initial steps to professionalize IEM education would include course maps with milestones and guide for a core curriculum.

Nirma BUSTAMANTE, Andres PATINO (Cambridge, USA), Alex VON ECKARTSBERG, Rebekah COELHO, Sebastian SUAREZ, Christian ARBELAEZ
17:00 - 17:10 #7874 - OP096 Performance of early warning scores calculated in the prehospital setting by ambulance crew to define the level of medical response: the SAPA/EAS study.
Performance of early warning scores calculated in the prehospital setting by ambulance crew to define the level of medical response: the SAPA/EAS study.

Introduction: Currently, in the prehospital setting, the first line ambulance crew don’t have any objective tool for helping to define the usefulness of Mobile Intensive Care Unit (MICU - SMUR) intervention. Early Warning Scores (EWS), based on vital signs, are used to monitor inpatients and to trigger a timely medical response. EWS in the prehospital setting might provide an objective tool leading to a more rational use of Emergency Medical Services (EMS). This study compares the performance of ten EWS among which the new EAS (Emergency Alert Score).

Material and method: 2343 ambulance’s report forms recorded during two months (January and July 2014) were retrospectively reviewed. Patients not transferred into one of the six participating hospitals of the ambulance district, patients aged less than 16 years, patients known to be pregnant and incomplete forms were excluded. Seven criteria for a medical response, independent of vital signs, were taken into account before calculating EWS. The primary outcome was the usefulness of MICU intervention, who was assessed by reviewing hospital medical files (adverse event and/or severity level at admission).

Results: 1120 patients were analysed. Hospitalisation rate was 45 %, among which 8 % in intensive care unit. Areas Under the Curve (AUC’s) of the best EWS (i.e. the EAS) without or with criteria for a medical response, independent of vital signs, were 0.76 (95 % CI: 0.74 – 0.79) and 0.83 (95 % CI: 0.80 – 0.85) respectively. For an EAS > 3, sensitivity was 73 % (95 % CI: 67 – 79), specificity was 80 % (95 % CI: 77 – 83), predictive positive value was 48 % (95 % CI: 43 – 53) and predictive negative value was 92 % (95 % CI: 90 – 94).

Discussion and Conclusion: Criteria for a medical response, independent of vital signs, improve the performances of the EAS score. A negative score (EAS ≤ 3) may help ambulance crew to decide to stop or to not call the MICU, with the advantage of an improvement in EMS management. These results must be confirmed by a prospective study.

References: Fullerton JN. et al. Resuscitation 2012; 83: 557-62. Silcock DJ et al. Resuscitation 2015; 89: 31-35.

Denis RANS (Nivelles, BELGIUM), Marc VRANCKX, Bernadette CUVELIER, Benjamin KERZMANN, Thierry SOTTIAUX, Christian MÉLOT, Fabien GUÉRISSE, Didier TAMINIAU
17:10 - 17:20 #7948 - OP097 Comparing Intraosseous And Intravenous Access For Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest In Singapore.
Comparing Intraosseous And Intravenous Access For Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest In Singapore.

Background

Vascular access in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients is challenging. Locally, emergency ambulance paramedics have a 50% success rate of obtaining an intravenous (IV) access in order to administer epinephrine. The aim is to evaluate the use of intraosseous (IO) in addition to IV to determine if there is an improvement in return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC).

 

Methods

This is a prospective, parallel group, cluster-randomised, crossover study comparing ‘IV only’ against ‘IV+IO’ in medical and traumatic OHCA cases in Singapore. In the ‘IV+IO’ arm, if 2 IV attempts failed or took more than 90 seconds, paramedics may have 2 attempts of IO. Inclusion criteria for IO were OHCA adult (body weight ≥40kg) and paediatric (body weight between 3 to 39kg) patients. Exclusion criteria were contraindications to IO. The primary outcome was ROSC. Secondary outcomes were insertion success rate, epinephrine administration, time taken for 1st dose of epinephrine and survival outcome.

 

Results

Based on phase 1 results (prior to crossover) from 1 September to 31 December 2014, there were 251 cases in the ‘IV only’ group and 307 cases in the ‘IV+IO’ group. Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. There were more successful vascular access and prehospital epinephrine administered in ‘IV+IO’ compared to ‘IV only’ (69.4% vs 53%, p<0.001, 62.5% vs 47.8%, p<0.001 respectively). There were 38 IO attempts in the ‘IV+IO’ group, of which 5 failed as the 1st attempt was unsuccessful but a 2nd attempt was not made. Median time to epinephrine was similar in both ‘IV+IO’ and ‘IV only’ groups (10 min [IQR 7-16 min] vs 11 min [IQR 7-18 min] respectively, p=0.104), also ROSC whether it was prehospital ROSC (8.5% vs 10% respectively, p=0.558) or hospital ROSC (25.7% vs 26.7% respectively, p=0.847), as well as survival to discharge or 30 days (3.9% vs 5.6% respectively, p=0.421) and good neurological outcome of cerebral performance category (CPC) ≤2 (2.6% vs 4.8% respectively, p=0.178).

 

Conclusions

The use of IO in addition to IV led to higher vascular success rate and prehospital epinephrine administration. However, it was not statistically significant for ROSC, survival to discharge or 30 day survival, or good neurological outcome.

 

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank the SCDF paramedics for their participation in this study. We have no conflicts of interest to declare. This study was funded by NMRC New Investigator Grant and AM-ETHOS Duke-NUS MSRF Grant. 

Yun Xin CHIN (Singapore, SINGAPORE), Kenneth Boon Kiat TAN, Zhi Xiong KOH, Yih Yng NG, Nur Ain Zafirah Bte MD SAID, Masnita RAHMAT, Stephanie FOOK, Marcus Eng Hock ONG
16:10 - 17:40 #8135 - OP098 Feasibility of a prospective risk analysis to improve patient safety in the chain of emergency care, a pilot study.
Feasibility of a prospective risk analysis to improve patient safety in the chain of emergency care, a pilot study.

Background

Patient safety is an important issue in emergency medicine. However, patient safety management is mainly focused on the care within  the emergency department (ED), although safety risks are known to take place in the chain of emergency care. For instance problems in the handovers of emergency care occur in safety incident reports of the general practitioner (GP) practice, ambulance emergency medical services (EMS) and other departments in the hospital. However, these reports are retrospectively focused, and insight in underlying causes is usually lacking. In this pilot study we explored the feasibility of a prospective risk analysis (PRI) in the chain of emergency care from the perspective of professionals, managers and board members.  

Methods

The pilot was performed in two emergency regions (provinces) in the Netherlands. Professionals of the emergency GP practice, EMS, ED and neurological department were included. We developed a protocol for the PRI process in the chain of emergency care, based on the health failure mode and effect analysis (HFMEA-light) method. The HFMEA-light method provides insight in safety risks of a care process or a chain of care through a systematic  assessment. Furthermore, we developed criteria for the selection of a care process that needs a safety risk assessment. An independent health policy advisor, with ample experience in facilitating PRI within hospitals, guided the PRI process in the (pre)hospital working group. We defined evaluation criteria for professionals, managers and board members of the participating organizations, as patient safety is a responsibility for each of them in a different role.

Results

We performed a PRI focused on changes in the Dutch national guideline for the emergency treatment of patients with a cerebro vasculair accident (CVA), and a PRI focused on handover of medication (errors) in the chain of emergency care. Professionals of the GP, EMS, ED, radiology and neurology  identified 14 patient safety risks in the CVA emergency care chain and 15 risks around medication handover. Risks were related to: inadequate or different education of professionals (knowledge and expertise), lack of ICT facilities and hampering communication between ICT systems, lack of synchronization of protocols in different organizations, miscommunication in oral and written handovers, lack of qualified staff for adequate performance of emergency care. The participants formulated a mutual plan for the improvement of patient safety, as part of the method. Professionals, managers and board members reported that the PRI was a useful and practical method, that contributed to a constructive improvement of patient safety (management) in the chain of emergency care. The PRI method connected well with the professional knowledge and expertise (intrinsic motivation) of the participants and improved the patient safety culture, when preconditions on confidentiality and mutual trust were met .

Conclusion

The PRI method provides prospective insight in safety risks in the chain of emergency care. It is a feasible method to improve patient safety  (culture) in the chain of emergency care, and professionals, managers and board members reported additional value of the method, with regard to others (retrospective) methods in use.

Marie-Jose LITJENS, Sivera BERBEN (Nijmegen, THE NETHERLANDS), Gijs HESSELINK, Karin VAN DEN BERG, Miranda DIRX, Lisette SCHOONHOVEN
16:10 - 17:40 #8141 - OP099 Governance of patient safety in emergency care: a mixed-methods study of emergency care services in the Netherlands.
Governance of patient safety in emergency care: a mixed-methods study of emergency care services in the Netherlands.

Background:

Executives of emergency healthcare services (EMS), such as Helicopter EMS, ambulance EMS and the emergency department (ED), have a fundamental governance role in overseeing and managing safety risks, because they are accountable for the overall quality and safety of healthcare their services provide. In the last decade, attention for the responsibility of executives towards patient safety has rapidly increased. This attention is stimulated by the crucial role executives have in the implementation of quality and safety improvement programmes, and by multiple patient safety incidents with great societal impact and directly related to poor governance. However, insight into the governance of patient safety within high-risk emergency care settings and the chain of emergency care is scarce. This study explores the factors that hinder executives in overseeing and improving safety risks within their own EMS, and in the chain of pre-hospital emergency care.

 

Methods:

A mixed-methods study was performed in two Dutch regional emergency healthcare networks covering a large part of the southeast Netherlands (provinces Gelderland and Limburg). In the Netherlands, pre-hospital emergency care is provided by General Practitioners (GPs), GP Out of Hours Service, EDs, ground-based ambulance and helicopter EMS and Psychiatric EMS. The Dutch EMS system operates on a variation of the Anglo-American model of EMS care. We performed 28 in-depth interviews with executives from different EMS organisations. The interviews lasted between 40 and 70 minutes and followed a semi-structured format using an interview guide. The guide was based on patient safety and governance literature, the input from experts (n=10) in the field of emergency care, public administration and patient safety, and brainstorm sessions with the research team. A pilot interview with the director of a regional emergency healthcare network was conducted to pre-test and refine the interview guide. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed based on the Grounded Theory approach. Furthermore, we collected and analysed relevant documents, such as annual reports, board minutes, policy statements, protocols and work instructions, to identify governance activities.

 

Results: Executives are satisfied with the governance of patient safety within their service. However, the professional autonomy often seems to conflict with the need of executives to be accountable for patient safety. Risk oversight and management are hindered by: the provision of care out of the executives’ sight, inadequate tools to measure or assess safety risks and fear amongst staff for the negative consequences of incident reporting. Many services lack a reliable organisation of up-to-date and easy accessible safety protocols. Governance within the chain of emergency care is hindered by conflicting interests and safety norms between services, the absence of an administrative authority and lack of appropriate risk identification tools.

 

Conclusions: Important safety risks within pre-hospital emergency care may be unnoticed and unmanaged by executives due to: inadequate risk monitoring, absence of a reporting culture and the lack of a shared sense of responsibility among executives for patient safety in the chain. Improvements should focus on these aspects as primary conditions for improving the governance of patient safety within emergency care.

Gijs HESSELINK, Sivera BERBEN (Nijmegen, THE NETHERLANDS), Miranda DIRX, Karin VAN DEN BERG, Lisette SCHOONHOVEN
 
17:40  
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AGM
EuSEM Annual General Assembly

EuSEM Annual General Assembly

           
 
19:00            
19:00-20:00
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G35
EuSEN - General Assembly

EuSEN - General Assembly

 
Wednesday 05 October
Time Room A-FESTSAAL Room B-ZEREMONIENSAAL Room C-PRINZ EUGEN SAAL Room D-FORUM Room E-GEHEIME RATSTUBE Room F-RITTERSAAL Room G-GARTENSAAL Room OP-SCHATZKAMMERSAAL
 
08:30
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A41
State of the Art
Neurological

State of the Art
Neurological

Moderators: Harald HERKNER (AUSTRIA), Christian HOHENSTEIN (PHYSICIAN) (JENA, GERMANY)
08:30 - 09:00 How to perform a rapid neuro-exam as an emergency physician. Greg HENRY (USA)
09:00 - 09:30 Seizures versus syncope: diagnosis and management. Christian HOHENSTEIN (PHYSICIAN) (JENA, GERMANY)
09:30 - 10:00 Hyperacute Stroke Management. Carsten KLINGNER (GERMANY)
08:30-10:00
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B41
Austria, Germany, Switzerland Invites
Journal Club: Literaturhighlights für Notfallmediziner aus…

Austria, Germany, Switzerland Invites
Journal Club: Literaturhighlights für Notfallmediziner aus…

Moderators: Gabriela SCHREIBER (Münchwilen, SWITZERLAND), Mathias ZÜRCHER (SWITZERLAND)
08:30 - 09:00 Kardiologie. Peter STRATIL (VIENNA, AUSTRIA)
09:00 - 09:30 Intensivmedizin. Michael CHRIST (Director) (Lucerne, SWITZERLAND)
09:30 - 10:00 Notfallmedizin. Christian WREDE (GERMANY)
08:30 - 10:00 Präklinik. Stephan BECKER (SWITZERLAND)
08:30-10:00
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C41
Philosophy & Controversies
P&C Women in Emergency Medicine

Philosophy & Controversies
P&C Women in Emergency Medicine

Moderators: Katrin HRUSKA (Farsta, SWEDEN), Karin RHODES (USA)
08:30 - 09:00 Every Challenge is an Opportunity – Empathy? Overrated. Maaret CASTREN (HELSINKI, FINLAND)
09:00 - 09:30 Every Challenge is an Opportunity - and other half truths of academia. Karin RHODES (USA)
08:30 - 10:00 Every Challenge is an Opportunity - what is the reality in Emergency Medicine? Barbara HOGAN (Past President of the European Society for Emergency Medicine, EuSEM) (HAMBURG, GERMANY)
09:30 - 10:00 Every Challenge is an Opportunity – Women in EM research; its about patient care. Christien VAN DER LINDEN (THE NETHERLANDS)
08:30-10:00
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D41
EUSEM meets IFEM

EUSEM meets IFEM

Moderators: Roberta PETRINO (Head of department) (Italie, ITALY), Marc SABBE (Medical staff member) (Leuven, BELGIUM)
08:30 - 09:00 From Club of Leuven to IFEM. Juliusz JAKUBASZKO (POLAND)
09:00 - 09:30 Facing the grand challenges of this age in Emergency Medicine. Timothy Hudson RAINER (UK)
09:30 - 10:00 Panel Discussion: The Big Questions for International Emergency Medicine in 2016. Timothy Hudson RAINER (UK), Juliusz JAKUBASZKO (POLAND), Roberta PETRINO (Head of department) (Italie, ITALY)
08:30-10:00
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E41
Research
Philosophy General EM

Research
Philosophy General EM

Moderators: Helen ASKITOPOULOU (Chair Ethics Committee) (Heraklion, GREECE), Laurie MAZURIK (TORONTO, CANADA)
08:30 - 09:00 Ethical Issues of Emergency Care for Elderly Patients. Helen ASKITOPOULOU (Chair Ethics Committee) (Heraklion, GREECE)
09:00 - 09:30 Legal and ethical issues of involuntary hospitalization. Miljan JOVIC (SERBIA)
09:30 - 10:00 Weighing benefit and harm in Emergency Medicine. Basar CANDAR (TURKEY)
08:30-10:00
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F41
YEMD
After the terrorist attacks

YEMD
After the terrorist attacks

Moderators: Youri YORDANOV (Médecin) (Paris, FRANCE), Sabina ZADEL (SLOVENIA)
08:30 - 09:00 The young EM doctors and the new threats: are we prepared? Youri YORDANOV (Médecin) (Paris, FRANCE)
09:00 - 09:30 When to hand over the command to our young consultant? Mathieu RAUX (Responsable d'unité) (PARIS, FRANCE)
09:30 - 10:00 Disaster Management: Is training by simulation the new trend? Luca RAGAZZONI (Novara, ITALY)
 
08:30-10:00
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OP41
Oral Papers 41

Oral Papers 41

Moderators: Mehmet Akif KARAMERCAN (ANKARA, TURKEY), Door LAUWAERT (BELGIUM)
08:30 - 08:40 #4586 - OP100 Cerebral Oximetry monitoring during 3%HTS infusion in intubated pediatric patients with isolated Head Trauma in a PED.
OP100 Cerebral Oximetry monitoring during 3%HTS infusion in intubated pediatric patients with isolated Head Trauma in a PED.

Altered cerebral physiology, pathology, and Increase ICP can be detected by cerebral oximetry in numerous pediatric ED studies.  In intubated pediatric ED traumatic brain injury  (TBI)patients detecting & response to treatment for the  alter cerebral physiology and ICP is solely by cardiovascular monitoring  and GCS which has major flaws.  In pediatric TBI  head trauma patients with increased ICP, 3%HTS therapy is a standard therapy for increased ICP but assessing its effect on intubated pediatric TBI patient's cerebral physiology by cerebral oximetry has never been reported.

Objective: In isolated pediatric TBI PED patients who received 3% HTS (5 ml/kg), analyze their cerebral oximetry changes in correlation to their 10 minutes before  and 10, 20 minutes post 3% HTS infusion.

Methods

ED observational convenience study of intubated pediatric isolated TBI patients with positive cerebral pathology by CT-scan( epidural, subdural, TBI) , 3% HTS infusion and cerebral oximetry monitoring. Patient's left and right cerebral oximetry readings 10 minutes before 3%HTS infusion and 10 & 20 minutes after 3%HTS infusion. Patients were further sub-group by their  rSO2 initial readings left, right or both rSO2 initial readings:  abnormal cerebral physiology rSO2 80 & normal cerebral physiology rSO2 60-80

Results

207 patients enrolled, age 2.9(1.14,6.9), epidural 28.5%, subdural 84.5%, TBI only 7%, GCS 7(6,8), time to first 15% rSO2 change was 1.1 minute (0.5,1.8). Figure 1

Conclusions

3%HTS infusion produced  significant cerebral oximetry changes in isolated pediatric intubated TBI patients with abnormal cerebral physiology, increased ICP and pathology.  Changes in Cerebral Oximetry readings from the 3%HTS was rapid 1.1 minutes (0.5,1.8). In intubated isolated pediatric TBI  ED patients with increased ICP from brain injury, cerebral oximetry can detect the effects of 3%HTS on these patient's  increase ICP and abnormal hemispheric cerebral physiology. Further investigation is warranted.

Thomas ABRAMO MD (Little Rock, USA), Lydia WASHER MD, Gregory ALBERT MD, Todd MAXSON, Jon ORSBORN MD, Nicholas PORTER MD, Elizabeth STORM MD, Zhuopei HU MS
08:40 - 08:50 #7033 - OP101 Effects of Silk Sericin on Incision Wound Healing in a Dorsal Skin Flap Wound Healing Rat Model.
OP101 Effects of Silk Sericin on Incision Wound Healing in a Dorsal Skin Flap Wound Healing Rat Model.

Background: The wound healing process is complex and still poorly understood. Sericin is a silk protein synthesized by silk worms (Bombyx mori). The objective of this study was to evaluate in vivo wound healing effects of sericin containing gel formulation in an incision wound model in rats. 

Material&Methods: Twenty-eight Wistar-Albino rats were divided into 4 groups (n=7). No intervention or treatment was applied to the Intact control group. For other groups, a dorsal skin flap (9x3 cm) was drawn and pulled up with sharp dissection. The Sham operated group received no treatment. Also the placebo group received placebo gel without sericin and the sericin group received 1% gel. Both gels applied to the incision area once a day, from day 0 to day 9. Hematoxylin and eosin stain was applied for histological analysis and Mallory-Azan staining was applied. For histoimmunochemical analysis of antibodies and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) and desmin was applied to paraffin sections of skin wound specimens. Parameters of oxidative stress were measured in the wound area.

Results: Epidermal thickness and vascularization were increased, and hair root degeneration, edema, cellular infiltration, collagen discoloration and necrosis were decreased in Sericin group in comparision to the Placebo group and the Sham operated group. Malonydialdehyde (MDA) is an important oxidative stress marker which appears after lipid peroxidation, MDA levels were decreased, but activites of important antioxidative defense enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were found to be as increased in the Sericin group.

Conclusions: We found that Sericin had significant positive effects on wound healing and antioxidant activity. Sericin-based formulations can improve healing of incision wounds.      

Murat ERSEL (IZMIR, TURKEY), Yigit UYANIKGIL, Funda KARBEK AKARCA, Enver OZCETE, Yusuf Ali ALTUNCI, Fatih KARABEY, Turker CAVUSOGLU, Ayfer MERAL, Gurkan YIGITTURK, Emel Oyku CETIN
08:50 - 09:00 #7436 - OP102 Comparison of the effects of hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort) treatment and alpina officinarum (galangal) treatment on the wound healing in experimental contact burns.
OP102 Comparison of the effects of hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort) treatment and alpina officinarum (galangal) treatment on the wound healing in experimental contact burns.

e Purpose:Topical agents are commonly used for burn treatment.There is not any agent or a method in the treatment that adopted as an effective and common method.St. John’s wort and galangal has been used for the treatment of numerous disorders for many years. It was aimed to determine whether H.Perforatum and A.officinarum which have been regarded to be effective on burn and wound healing are effective on experimental contact type burns in terms of wound healing,or not and compare their effects with each other.METHOD:35 healthy albino Wistar rats were subjected. Rats were separated into 5 groups. Burns were formed by contacting the 1x1 cm copper end, which was kept at 100°C constant temperature, of the device designed with the aim of forming burn model to the shaved areas for 10 seconds without applying extra pressure..Any procedure or treatment was not applied to Group 1. In Group 2, burns were only irrigated with 100cc SF for 2 minutes and covered with drug-free dressing after burn application and any other treatment was not applied. In Group 3, the gel prepared from galangal plant was applied for one time after burn application. In Group 4, the gel prepared from St John's wort was applied for one time after burn application.In Group 5, plain gel was applied for one time after burn application.FINDINGS:Hour 0 (before burn) and hour 24 (after burn) weights were measured and assessed.Edema amount was seen to be reduce in all groups with time.In this study, the procedures of vein, hair root and degenerated hair root count were performed on all preparates obtained from each animal of each group.Degenerated hair root number increased step by step in burn control group. When galangal and St John's wort were compared in terms of the effect on the degenerated hair root number, any statistically different value could not be obtained. St John's wort had a statistically meaningful difference (p<0.05) in terms of degenerated hair root number. 10 randomized histological sections was taken from each biopsy materials obtained from all animals of each group and tissues of each animal, and in each preparate, epidermis thicknesses of 20 randomized different areas were taken, arithmetic mean results were written and they were assessed statistically. RESULT:it was observed that the topical H.perforatum treatment that was applied for one time in acute contact type experimental burns reduced edema and damages of hair root and glandula sebacea, and was effective both for the protection of hair root number, vein number and epidermis thickness, and lowering the degenerated hair root number.It was understood that A.officinarum treatment had also effects reducing the edema, glandula sebacea damage and was effective for the protection of epidermis thickness and lowering the degenerated hair root number. However when the treatment applications were compared, the effects of H.Perforatum treatment was more prominent than topical A.officinarum treatment for wound healing regarding the contact type burns. It can be said that H.Perforatum topical treatment is going to givmore positive results for acute period burns when compared to A.officinarum treatment.

Halil Uğur SAVAŞ (GAZİANTEP, TURKEY), Selahattin KIYAN, Yiğit UYANIKGİL
09:00 - 09:10 #7514 - OP103 Analysis of prognostic factors for surgical patients with traumatic acute subdural hematomas.
OP103 Analysis of prognostic factors for surgical patients with traumatic acute subdural hematomas.

Background:

Acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) is a common traumatic brain injury with a relatively high mortality rate. However, few studies have examined the factors on admission predicting the outcome of traumatic ASDH. This clinical study analyzed the prognostic factors on admission in patients treated surgically for traumatic ASDH.

Participants and methods:

A total of 74 surgical patients for traumatic ASDH between January 2008 and October 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. If surgical evacuation of an ASDH in patient is indicated, it should be performed using a craniotomy with or without bone flap removal and duraplasty. Glasgow outcome score (GOS) was used for prognostic evaluations and favorable prognosis was defined as 4-5 points. We used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis to evaluate the influence of clinical variables on prognosis.

Results:

The majority were male (66.2%) and the mean age was 59 years. The percentage of patients with favorable prognosis was 25.7% and the mortality 36.5%. Age (OR = 0.874), Glasgow Coma Score on admission (OR = 1.851), D-dimer (OR = 0.756) and Rotterdam CT score (OR = 0.137) were independent predictors, while no independent association was observed between prognosis and platelet count, thickness of hematoma, although these variables were correlated with prognosis in univariate analyses. Sex, pupil abnormalities, light reflex, PT-INR, fibrinogen, glucose, electrolytes, arterial blood gas data were no correlated with prognosis in univariate analysis.

Discussion/Conclusion:

This study identified the risk factors for poor prognosis in patients who underwent surgical treatment for traumatic ASDH. Poor outcome in traumatic acute subdural hematoma is higher in elderly patients even after surgical intervention. There is a high incidence of coagulopathy following TBI. The presence of elevated D-dime as well as of severity of TBI are strong predictors of prognosis in these patients. The Rotterdam classification including compressed basal cistern, midline shift >5mm, absent of epidural hematoma mass, present of intraventricular blood or subarachnoid hemorrhage seems to be appropriate for describing the evolution of the injuries on the CT scans and contributes in predicting of outcome in surgical ASDH patients. In conclusion, older patients, lower Glasgow Coma Score on admission, elevated D-dimer, higher Rotterdam CT score tend to have poor prognosis. The findings might help clinicians determine management criteria and improve survival.

Acknowledgement: On behalf of all authors, the first author states that there is no financial other conflict of interests

Hiroshi YATSUSHIGE (Tokyo, JAPAN), Takanori HAYAKAWA, Kyoko SUMIYOSHI, Keigo SHIGETA, Toshiya MOMOSE, Masaya ENOMOTO, Shin SATO, Jiro AOYAMA
09:10 - 09:20 #7678 - OP104 Budesonide Nebulization Added to Systemic Prednisolone in the Treatment of Severe Acute Asthma in adults.
OP104 Budesonide Nebulization Added to Systemic Prednisolone in the Treatment of Severe Acute Asthma in adults.

Introduction:

Inhaled corticosteroids, known to be effective as a maintenance medication in chronic asthma, have also been suggested as a therapy for acute asthma when given at high doses in children. The role of inhaled corticosteroids in the treatment of acute asthma exacerbations in adults is controversial.

Aim of study: to study the efficacy of high dose nebulized budesonide (BUD) in the treatment of severe acute asthma in adults.

Methods:

A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial conducted over six months. Inclusion: Age ˃18 and ˂45 years with a peak expiratory flow (PEF) <50% of predicted value. Patients were assigned to receive 0.5 mg Budesonide (BUD) nebulized or placebo isotonic saline serum (ISS), in addition to Terbutaline 5mg and 0.5mg Ipratropuim bromide every 20 minutes the first hour. All patients received single oral dose of prednisolone 1 mg/kg given at the beginning of therapy. The primary outcome was the delta PEF in the first hour (H1).The secondary outcome was hospital admission rate within 4 h and length of stay in the emergency department (ED).

Results:

A total of 108 visits by adults with severe acute asthma were evaluated.Mean age = 36 ± 9 years. Sex ratio = 0.43. On admission, the two BUD groups (n = 49) and placebo (n = 55) were similar. The delta PEF in H1 was 25% in the BUD group versus 20% in the placebo group (p = 0.01, OR = 3.4) . The hospitalization rate was 47% in the BUD group against 53% in the placebo group (p = 0.97). The average length of stay was 7 ± 5 hours in the BUD group versus 11 ± 9 hours in the ISS group (p = 0.04, OR = 1.9). No major complications were observed in both groups.Conclusion :The addition of high repetitive budesonide nebulization improve the lung function and decrease the admission rate of adults with severe acute asthma.

Wided BOUSSLIMI, Anware YAHMADI, Rania JEBRI (Ben Arous, TUNISIA), Hanane GHAZALI, Houssem AOUNI, Chaabani GHZELA, Monia NAGUECH, Sami SOUISSI
09:20 - 09:30 #7843 - OP105 Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in the emergency department: a new score.
OP105 Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in the emergency department: a new score.

 

Objectives: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis is less frequent in emergency medicine (EM) than in internal medicine (IM) department. The aim of the present study is a critically revue of thromboembolism criteria and score in the medical patient, in EM and IM department. Particularly we hope find a score more suitable for acute patient but with high sensibility and specificity.
Methods: Double case-control observational study, with enrollment, for each case of VTE, of two consecutive patients without VTE, of equal sex and age group (18–50, 50–55, 55–60, 60–65, 65–70, 70–75, 75–80, >80 years).The study involved EM and IM department of 23 hospital/university of Lazio and Umbria, in Italy.

Results: We analyzed data pertaining to 1215 patients, 409 with VTE (50% – deep venous thrombosis (DVT), 9.9% – pulmonary embolism (PE), 40.1% – PE+DVT) and 806 case-control. 222 patients (30%) were in charge to EM department while 520 patients (70%) to IM department. The TEV risk factors at more statistical significance (p<0.01) were: previous VTE, active cancer, known thrombophilic condition, immobilization, chronic venous insufficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, central venous catheter, recent hospitalization. Obesity, recent surgery, family history of VTE, hormone therapy and treatment with drugs that stimulate hematopoiesis were resulted at intermediate statistical significance (p<0.05 but >0.01). Multiple logistic regression was used with robust standard errors and forward selection of candidate variables using the Bayesian information criterion to develop a new score: the " TEvere Score" This score shows the highest specificity and sensitivity, (respectively 43.3and 87.5 with accuracy 72.1) compared with Padua, Kuscer and Chopard scores. Tevere score had predictive validity for risk of thromboembolism(AUROC 0.7266; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.73) than was greater than Kuscer score(AUROC 0.6891; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.70)(p =0.0093).

Conclusions: The TEVERE score  has shown to have a higher accuracy than the other scores most commonly used in clinical practice to stratify the risk of thromboembolism.In particular, in our study, we were taken into exams also patients from the Department of Emergency, which appear to have, for a variety of factors, different characteristics than patients hospitalized in medical wards.This makes the TEVERE a good score to use, fast, also in the Emergency Departments.

 

Giovanni Maria VINCENTELLI (Rome, ITALY), Manuel MONTI, Francesco Rocco PUGLIESE, Maria Pia RUGGIERI, Giuseppe MURDOLO, Francesco BORGOGNONI, Giuliano BERTAZZONI
09:30 - 09:40 #8138 - OP106 Non-Invasive Ventilation for acute hypoxic and hypercapnic respiratory failure: determinants of in-hospital mortality.
OP106 Non-Invasive Ventilation for acute hypoxic and hypercapnic respiratory failure: determinants of in-hospital mortality.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the in-hospital outcome and the factors associated with a prolonged treatment (<48 hours) in a group of patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF), treated with noninvasive ventilation (NIV).

METHODS: This was a retrospective study including all patients with ARF requiring NIV over a eleven-month period, admitted in an Emergency Department High-Dependency Observation Unit (ED-HDU). Clinical data were collected at baseline, 1 hour, and 24 hours; Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA score) was calculated with the worst clinical parameters during the first 24 hours. The patients were classified into 2 groups: acute hypoxic respiratory failure (ARF1) and acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (ARF2). The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality.

RESULTS: During the study period (April, 2015-March, 2016), 150 patients underwent NIV; in 59 patients NIV was maintained beyond 48 hours and in-hospital mortality was 22% (including 7% ED-HDU mortality); only 1 patient was intubated during ED-HDU staying. Persistence of hypoxia (PaO2/FiO2<200) 1 hour (59 vs 38%, p=0.029)and 24 hours (65 vs 35%, p=0.012) after NIV beginning, tachypnea (RR>29 per minute) at 1 hour evaluation (30 vs 10%, p=0.017) and a depressed level of consciousness (Glasgow Coma Scale, GCS<15) at all evaluation points(before NIV 46 vs 25%; 1 hour: 48 vs 22%; 24 hours: 41 vs 20%, all p<0.05) were more frequent in non-survivors compared with survivors. Persistence of acidosis (pH<7.30) and tachypnea at 24-hour evaluation were more frequent in patients who underwent NIV beyond 48 hours (respectively 10 vs 1% and 20 vs 5%, all p <0.05).

ARF1 group included 101 patients (67%) and ARF2 49 (33%). Mean age was similar in the two groups (77±13 vs 79±9 years, p=NS), while ARF1 patients showed a higher SOFA score than ARF2 (4.6±2.4 vs 3.3±1.8, p=0.036). NIV was considered the ceiling treatment in 26 (26%) ARF1 and in 11 (22%) ARF2 patients (p=NS). In-hospital mortality was 28% among ARF1 and 9% among ARF2 patients (p=0.005); all but one ARF2 non-survivors and 17/28 ARF1 non-survivors underwent NIV as ceiling treatment. Among ARF1 patients, non survivors showed more frequently than survivors persistence of tachypnea at 1-hour and 24-hour interval (respectively 33 vs 9% and 36 vs 7%, all p<0.05); a 1-hour reduced GCS (46 vs 24%, p=0.05) and hypoxemia at 24-hour interval (71 vs 45%, p=0.063) only tended to be more frequent. No parameter significantly predicted NIV prolonged duration. Among ARF2 patients, only an altered level of consciousness at 1-hour and 24-hour interval was significantly more frequent among non-survivors than survivors (respectively 67 vs 18% and 67 vs 15%, p<0.05); a reduced GCS before NIV beginning and at 24-hour interval was more frequent among patients undergoing NIV beyond 48 hours (37 vs 9% and 33 vs 5%, all p<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: In this experience reported from a real clinical scenario, mortality rate was comparable with previous reports despite the presence of a significant proportion of patients undergoing NIV as ceiling treatment. Among ARF1 patients, who showed the highest mortality, persistence of tachypnea despite NIV implementation was the most significant predictor of a bad outcome. 

Simona GUALTIERI (Florence, ITALY), Laura GIORDANO, Arianna GANDINI, Lucia TAURINO, Chiara GIGLI, Francesca INNOCENTI, Riccardo PINI
09:40 - 09:50 #8145 - OP107 Platelet-lymphocyte ratio has a high prognostic significance in patients with multitrauma.
OP107 Platelet-lymphocyte ratio has a high prognostic significance in patients with multitrauma.

Backgrounds: Prognostic parameters to differentiate injuries that may cause fatality gain extra importance to save this group of patients on time.

Aim: To determine the predictive significance of haematological markers (neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts, NLR and platelet lymphocyte ratio [PLR]) for mortality in patients with multitrauma.

Methods: Data of all consecutive trauma patients according to ICD-10 that admitted to our ED were taken from database of our hospital retrospectively. The following ICD codes were scanned for this aim: S00 to T88, V00 to Y99, R58, Z04. Of 46,497 records in 6 years, 6,917 patients with available completed records and initial complete blood count (CBC) studied in ED within 30 minutes were included: 5,984 patients who were discharged from the hospital were evaluated as the control group and 933 patients who died at the hospital were evaluated as the study group.

Results: Of the patients, 68%(n=4685) were men and mean age was 42.6± 20.4. The ROC curves to discriminate mortal cases among all trauma patients for PLR, PLT, NLR, and RDW were 0.803 [95% confidence interval (CI). 0.784–0.823], 0.763 (95%CI: 0.741–0.784), 0.412 (95%CI: 0.390–0.435), and 0.380 (95%CI: 0.360–0.399), respectively. When the diagnostic value of the cut-off value of the PLR was taken as 74.18, sensitivity, specificity, +LR and- LR of in patients with mortal trauma were 85.4, 66.7, 2.6 and 0.2, respectively.

Conclusion: We found that PLR is a statistically significant independent predictor of mortality with high sensitivity and specificity in patients with trauma.

Atıf BAYRAMOGLU (Erzurum, TURKEY), Mucahit EMET, Necati SALMAN
09:50 - 10:00 #8153 - OP108 More time spent on the scene in trauma is associated with increased morbidity and mortality.
OP108 More time spent on the scene in trauma is associated with increased morbidity and mortality.

Background: Despite compelling evidence for better outcome with a shorter pre-hospital time in trauma, there continues to be debate surrounding different approaches used on the scene. North America advocates the “scoop and run” principle comprising basic life support, minimal intervention and rapid transfer to definitive care. However Europe continues to employ a “stay and play” practice with advanced life support and multiple complex procedures being commonplace.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of on scene time on morbidity and mortality for major trauma patients.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of ambulance sheets and trauma proformas for patients presenting to Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham (major trauma centre) was performed from June 2014 to June 2015 from a prospectively maintained database. A complete set of pre-hospital times was defined as call-time, time-on-scene, time-left-scene and time-at-destination. Basic demographics, injury severity score (ISS), length of stay (LoS) and mortality were recorded. Rapid sequence induction (RSI) and advanced life support (ALS) procedures were also documented.

Outcomes were assessed using SPSS software. Multiple linear regression was used to assess how on scene time impacts LoS in hospital with log LoS as the dependent variable. Multivariable binary logistic regression was performed to calculate the effect of on scene time on mortality. Both of these were corrected for age, ISS and remaining pre-hospital time defined as the sum of call-time to time-on-scene and time-left-scene to time-at-destination.

Results: A total of 494 patients presented to the Emergency Department. 363 patients (median age 52 [range 13-101] M275:F88) had a complete set of pre-hospital times. Median on scene time was 39 minutes (range 6 minutes-2 hours 13 minutes) and the median for remaining pre-hospital time was 28 minutes (range 2 minutes-2 hours 14 minutes).Median ISS was 16 (range 1-75) and there was a 14-day median LoS (range 2-128 days). 42 patients (12%) died. RSI was performed on 53 counts (15%) and 14 patients (4%) underwent pre-hospital ALS.

Multiple linear regression revealed that for every additional hour spent on the scene there was a 70% increase in LoS (95% confidence interval 31-123%) with a strong statistical significance after correcting for age, ISS and remaining pre-hospital time (p < 0.001).

Multivariable binary logistic regression similarly showed an odds ratio of 3.19 for mortality (95% confidence interval 1.17-8.68) with every additional hour spent on the scene. This was again statistically significant after correcting for age, ISS and remaining pre-hospital time (p = 0.023).

Conclusion: Trauma networks are established to provide rapid transfer to a tertiary centre for definitive treatment. Pre-hospital medics must be mindful that a longer on scene time negatively effects morbidity and mortality for polytrauma patients. The authors of this study therefore advocate the “scoop and run” approach.

Vittorio DECARO (Northampton, UK), Indervir BHARJ, Azam MAJEED, Peter NIGHTINGALE
 
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A42
State of the Art
Hot Topic - EBM

State of the Art
Hot Topic - EBM

Moderators: Christian HOHENSTEIN (PHYSICIAN) (JENA, GERMANY), Bas DE GROOT (Amsterdam, THE NETHERLANDS)
10:30 - 11:00 Creating a national network for clinical research. Alasdair GRAY (Edinburgh, UK)
11:00 - 11:30 How and when to teach evidence-based Emergency Medicine. Sandra VIGGERS (Medical Student) (Copenhagen, DENMARK)
11:30 - 12:00 Why is symptom-oriented research important ? Roland BINGISSER (Basel, SWITZERLAND)
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B42
Austria, Germany, Switzerland Invites
Ärzte / Pflege innerklinisch - Change Management & Umsetzung

Austria, Germany, Switzerland Invites
Ärzte / Pflege innerklinisch - Change Management & Umsetzung

Moderators: Philip EISENBURGER (Head) (Vienna, AUSTRIA), Michael WÜNNING (GERMANY)
10:30 - 11:00 Patientenflow in der Notaufnahme verbessern. Michael HILLEBRAND (GERMANY)
11:00 - 11:30 Medizinische Ausbildung für die Generation Y. Martin FANDLER (Doctor) (Nuremberg, GERMANY)
11:30 - 12:00 Die Fachweiterbildung Notfallpflege - Charité, Aktueller Stand und Perspektiven. Mareen MACHNER (GERMANY)
10:30 - 12:00 Führungsakademie DGINA. Michael WÜNNING (GERMANY)
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C42
Philosophy & Controversies
P&C Mountain Medicine

Philosophy & Controversies
P&C Mountain Medicine

Moderators: Damian MACDONALD (CANADA), Peter STRATIL (VIENNA, AUSTRIA)
10:30 - 11:00 Mountain Medicine: evidence based management of common conditions. Philip SCOTT (UK)
11:00 - 11:30 Cardiovascular Disorders at Altitude. Stephen PETTIT (UK)
11:30 - 12:00 Hypothermia. Peter PAAL (Head of Department) (Salzburg, AUSTRIA)
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D42
EUSEM Meets EM Global Leaders

EUSEM Meets EM Global Leaders

Moderators: John HEYWORTH (UK), Barbara HOGAN (Past President of the European Society for Emergency Medicine, EuSEM) (HAMBURG, GERMANY)
10:30 - 11:00 Diary of a wimpy journal - lessons from navigating publication adolescence. Stevan BRUIJNS (SOUTH AFRICA)
11:00 - 11:30 The challenge of developing Emergency Medicine. Katrin HRUSKA (Farsta, SWEDEN)
11:30 - 12:00 Quality, equality and development of Emergency Medicine in Europe. Roberta PETRINO (Head of department) (Italie, ITALY)
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E42
Research
Hot off the press

Research
Hot off the press

Moderators: Helen ASKITOPOULOU (Chair Ethics Committee) (Heraklion, GREECE), Basar CANDAR (TURKEY)
10:30 - 11:00 A randomised controlled trial of oxygen for patients with acute myocardial infarction. Ardavan KHOSHNOOD (Lund, SWEDEN)
11:00 - 11:30 Prednisolone for the treatment of acute gout. Timothy Hudson RAINER (UK)
11:30 - 12:00 Update from the RAPID-CTCA trial. Alasdair GRAY (Edinburgh, UK)
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F42
YEMD
Simulation for education

YEMD
Simulation for education

Moderators: Antoine TESNIERE (Paris, FRANCE), Jennifer TRUCHOT (Paris, FRANCE)
10:30 - 11:00 Simulation for teaching soft skills. Simon CARLEY (Manchester, UK)
11:00 - 11:30 Serious gaming for education. Jennifer TRUCHOT (Paris, FRANCE)
11:30 - 12:00 Crisis resource management education with simulation. Antoine TESNIERE (Paris, FRANCE)
 
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OP42
Oral Papers 42

Oral Papers 42

Moderators: John HOLCOMB (USA), Mehmet Akif KARAMERCAN (ANKARA, TURKEY)
10:30 - 10:40 #8087 - OP109 Major trauma presenting to a tertiary centre in Ireland.
OP109 Major trauma presenting to a tertiary centre in Ireland.

Major trauma presenting to a tertiary centre in Ireland.

 

Background

Traditionally major trauma has been viewed as a disease of young men involved in high energy transfer mechanisms. With the aging population in Europe the face of major trauma is changing.

 

Aim

The aim of this study was to describe the demographics of major trauma presenting to a tertiary urban university hospital in Ireland over a 48-month period.

 

Methods

St. Vincent’s University Hospital (SVUH) was the first institution in Ireland to contribute to the Trauma Audit & Research Network (TARN) database and has been doing so since September 2013Demographics, mechanism of injury, Injury Severity Score (ISS), length of stay (LOS) and time to CT are presented in this study.

 

Results

A total of 862 patients were included from September 1st 2013 to August 31st 2015. Of this population 52.3% were male. The mean age at presentation was 62.6 years (SD 22.4). 449 patients (52.0%) were >65 years, with a strong female preponderance (160 males (35.6%) and 289 females (64.3%) over 65 years). The most common mechanism of injury was “fall less than 2 metres” (n=511, 59.3%), followed by vehicle collision (n=145, 16.8%). In the over-65 population, 81.7% (n=367) suffered a fall less than 2 metres. 65.5% had an ISS of 1-14 and 34.4% a score of greater than >15. The median ISS was 9 (range 1-57). The mean length of stay was 21.0 days (SD 33.8). 51 patients (5.9%) died, of whom 39 were over the age of 65 (i.e. 8.7% of this group).

 

Conclusion

Our trauma database included more patients over the age of 65 than under, and the predominant mechanism of injury was one of low energy, i.e. fall from less than 2 metres. Our data is in keeping with other recent studies from large trauma databases.(1) It highlights the need to tailor our major trauma services to specific needs of the elderly.

 

References

  1. The changing face of major trauma in the UK. Kehoe A, et al. Emerg Med J 2015; 32:911–915.

 

Justine JORDAN (Dublin, IRELAND), Marie Therese COONEY, Rachael DOYLE, David MENZIES, John CRONIN
10:40 - 10:50 #7050 - OP110 Clinical features and outcomes of patients with organophosphate poisoning: a five-year retrospective analysis in a medical center.
OP110 Clinical features and outcomes of patients with organophosphate poisoning: a five-year retrospective analysis in a medical center.

Background:Organophosphorus pesticides are widely used in Taiwan. These insecticides include more than one hundred varieties and have large impact on human and animals. According to the statistical information of World Health Organization, there are about 30 million people with pesticide posioning every year, in which the majority of these patients have organophosphate poisoning. Regardless of the exposure pathways in organophosphate poisoning, it is likely to cause serious outcomes or irreversible harm, even death. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify determinants of prognosis in patients with organophosphate poisoning. 

Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at a medical center. Consecutive patients having organophosphate poisoning who visited the Emergency Room between January 2008 and December 2012 were retrospectively enrolled. Data which were collected from the medical record of every patient included demographic information, details of medical history, clinical information, the treatment modalities and outcomes. Logistic regression was performed to determine independent corelates of mortality in patients with organophosphate poisoning.

Results:Of the 46 patients with organophosphate poisoning recruited, their mean age was 57 +/- 18.7 years, in which 80.4% were male and 63.0% were admitted to the intensive care unit. The most common comorbidities in these patients were psychiatric disorder(32.6%), followed by cardiovascular disorders(19.6%) During the study period, 5 of the 46 patients died, giving an overall case fatality rate of 10.9%. In multivariate analysis, an increased Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation(APACHE) II score (p=0.031) was associated with ICU mortality.

Conclusion:The APACHE II score on ICU admission is a significant prognostic indicator in patients with organophsphate poisoning. A further prospective study to strengthen this point is required.

Key Words:Organophosphate poisoning, risk factor, mortality, APACHEII.

Po-Sung LI (Taichung, TAIWAN), Cheng-Han TSAI
10:50 - 11:00 #7222 - OP111 Pre-hospital times and clinical characteristics of multi-system trauma patients: A comparison between mountain and urban areas.
OP111 Pre-hospital times and clinical characteristics of multi-system trauma patients: A comparison between mountain and urban areas.

Objective: Time from accident to hospital admission in trauma patients is expected to be longer in mountain as compared to urban areas. The aim of this study was to investigate pre-hospital times and clinical characteristics of multi-system trauma patients in mountainous areas and compare them with urban centres.

Methods: Pre-hospital and in-hospital data of trauma victims included in the prospective International Alpine Trauma Register (IATR) hosted in Bolzano, Italy, were compared with published data of trauma victims from rural and suburban areas included in the TraumaRegister DGU® (TR-DGU) of the German Trauma Society. Only patients aged 16 to 80 years with ISS≥16 were included.

Results: A total of 94 patients from IATR and 11020 patients from TR-DGU met the inclusion criteria. Although helicopter rescue was more frequent in mountain compared to urban areas (92% vs. 40%, Fisher’s exact test p<0.001), the mean prehospital time was significantly longer in mountain areas (117.4±143.9 vs. 68.7±28.6min, Welch’s t-test p=0.002) with 38% of patients having a pre-hospital time of >90min. Mean ISS was higher in ITAR patients as compared to DGU® TraumaRegister patients (38.5±15.8 vs. 28.6±12.2, p<0.001). Moreover, patients presenting with a low systolic blood pressure (≤90mmHg) at scene were more frequent in ITAR (41% vs. 19%, Fisher’s exact test p<0.001), yet less patients from IATR as compared to TR-DGU® received pre-hospital volume therapy (82% versus 92%, p=0.001). The rate of unconscious patients with GCS≤8 (34% vs. 33%, p=0.917) as well as pre-hospital intubation rate (44% vs. 54%, p=0.077) were similar in mountain and urban areas. At hospital arrival mean haemoglobin was comparable (12.0 vs. 12.1g/dl, p=0.774), whereas mean base excess was lower in mountain than urban areas (-5.4±4.1 vs. -3.3±5.1, p<0.001). Furthermore, patients with a low systolic blood pressure (≤90mmHg) at hospital arrival were more frequent in IATR as compared to DR-DGU® (27% vs. 15%, p=0.003). No significant difference in hospital mortality was observed between patients from the two registries (11.1% vs. 17%, p=0.163).

Conclusion: Multi-system trauma in mountain areas has some distinctive characteristics and is associated with a significantly increased pre-hospital time despite helicopter rescue in over 90% of cases.

Simon RAUCH (Ora, ITALY), Tomas DAL CAPPELLO, Giacomo STRAPAZZON, Francesco BONSANTE, Martin PALMA, Elisabeth GRUBER, Matthias STRÖHLE, Alberto TRINCANATO, Andreas FRASNELLI, Peter MAIR, Hermann BRUGGER
11:00 - 11:10 #7256 - OP112 Prediction of hospital mortality according to the lactate level taken after the prehospital interventions in polytrauma patients.
OP112 Prediction of hospital mortality according to the lactate level taken after the prehospital interventions in polytrauma patients.

INTRODUCTION:
The predictive value of a single elevated blood lactate or blood lactate clearance on mortality in trauma patients has been demonstrated in a number of studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the lactate level on the arrival to the hospital after our prehospital interventions in polytrauma patients and subsequent hospital mortality.
METHODOLOGY:
We have retrospectively evaluated 51 polytrauma patients who were evacuated by the helicopter emergency service and admitted to the clinics of anaesthesiology and intensive care of 2 trauma centres in a period from 2010 to 2014. These patients were divided into 3 groups according to the lactate level, which had to be taken immediately on the arrival to the hospital. Into the first group the patients with lactate ≤2.5 mmol/l (L1), were enrolled, into the second group the patients with the lactate level of 2.6-4.0mmol/l (L2), and the third group was formed by the patients with the lactate level ≥ 4.1 mmol/l, (L3). These groups were compared taking into account the age, duration of HEMS mission from the first alert to the admission to the hospital, the prehospital amount of intravenous fluids, the intake haemoglobin, and mortality. For statistical analysis ANOVA, Tukey Kramer test and Kruskal –Wallis with Dunn test were used. The differences in numbers of individual categories were tested using the 3x2 contingency table. P value <0.05 was significant for all statistical tests.
RESULTS:
The average age of all patients was 38.3 years, without significant difference among the groups (L1:36.0, L2:40.8, L3:40.3, ANOVA, p=0.63). The average time from the first alert to admission was 69.7 minutes without significant difference among the groups (L1:69.54, L2:64.3, L3:73.31). We prehospitaly administered in average 1260 ml of intravenous fluids. The amount of fluids was increasing with elevating lactate. (L1:1110ml, L2:1230ml, L3:1510ml, with statistical significance between the groups L1 and L3. The intake haemoglobin was significantly lower in the third group (L1:119g/l, L2:121 g/l, L3:89g/l). The hospital mortality rose with increased lactate (L1:16%, L2:20%). In the third group the mortality reached 43.75%. In this last group 75% of patients had at least in one prehospital measurement the systolic blood pressure less than 90mmHg and 62.5% were continuously administered Norepinephrine during the mission.
CONCLUSION:
We have confirmed the growing hospital mortality with increasing lactate, but this study has been limited by the small number of patients. We have observed quite high hospital mortality in the group with lactate ≥ 4.1 mmol/l, despite the higher prehospital amount of intravenous fluids, early intubation and artificial lung ventilation if there was an indication. What could help to decrease mortality in these patients is the further shortening of prehospital phase even though our transport
times are comparable with another helicopter emergency system (London´s Air Ambulance: 66 min). The next thing could be administration of blood products on board of a helicopter.

Terezia PASTEKOVA (Trnava, SLOVAKIA), Katarina BRSTIAKOVA
11:10 - 11:20 #8034 - OP113 Functional outcome in patients with moderate and severe trauma in Hong Kong: 4 year prospective multicentre cohort study.
OP113 Functional outcome in patients with moderate and severe trauma in Hong Kong: 4 year prospective multicentre cohort study.

Introduction

Trauma care systems aim to reduce death and to improve quality of life and functional outcome in trauma patients. It is well documented that trauma systems result in improved survival after injury, yet there is little data on post-trauma functional outcome. Such evaluation of functional recovery is important as this will allow comparison with other settings, will help evaluate the impact and effectiveness of trauma systems as a whole, and may provide prognostic information for healthcare workers and patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate baseline, discharge, six month and 1, 2, 3 and 4 year post-trauma functional outcome and predictors of optimal functional outcome in Hong Kong.

 

Participants and methods

From 1st January to 30th September 2010 patients were recruited to a prospective multi-centre cohort study of trauma patients and then followed up for four years to 30th September 2015.  The study was conducted in three trauma centres in Hong Kong. Adult patients aged ≥18 years with ISS≥9, entered into the trauma registry, and who survived the first 48 hours of injury were included. The main outcome measures included theextended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE) and SF36.

 

Results

During the study, 400 patients (mean age 53.3 years; range 18-106; 69.5% male) were recruited. There were no statistically significant differences in baseline characteristics between responders (N=143) and surviving non-responders (N=179). Only 81/400 (20.3%) cases reported a GOSE≥7.  If non-responders had similar outcomes to responders, then the percentages for GOSE≥7 would rise from 20.3% to 45.6%. Univariate analysis showed that poor functional outcome at 48 months was significantly associated with admission to ICU (OR 2.267), ISS 26-40 (OR 3.231), baseline PCS on SF36 testing (OR 0.940), one-month PCS (OR 0.933), 6-month PCS (OR 0.904) and 6-month MCS on SF36 testing (OR 0.96).

  

Conclusions

At 48 months after injury, 45% of patients sustaining moderate or major trauma in Hong Kong had an excellent recovery. Admission to ICU, ISS 26-40, baseline PCS, one-month PCS, 6-month PCS and 6-month MCS predict 4-year functional outcome.

 

Acknowledgement

This study was supported by Health and Health Services Research Grant 07080261 and Health and Medical Research Fund Grant 10110251.

Colin A GRAHAM, Kevin Kc HUNG (Hong Kong, CHINA), Janice Hh YEUNG, Wai S POON, Hiu F HO, Chak W KAM, Timothy H RAINER
11:20 - 11:30 #8035 - OP114 Probability of return to work after moderate and severe trauma in Hong Kong: 4 year prospective multicentre cohort study.
OP114 Probability of return to work after moderate and severe trauma in Hong Kong: 4 year prospective multicentre cohort study.

Introduction

The aim of this study was to provide preliminary data on RTW status for patients in Hong Kong with moderate and major trauma.

 

Participants and methods

A multi-centre prospective cohort study of trauma patients was conducted in three trauma centres in Hong Kong: the Prince of Wales Hospital (PWH), Queen Elizabeth Hospital (QEH) and Tuen Mun Hospital (TMH). Patients were included if they were in the trauma registry, aged≥18 years, had moderate or major trauma (ISS≥9), and answered ‘yes’ to question 5c of GOSE which specifically asks about whether the patient was working or seeking work prior to injury. Patients were followed up for 48 months. The primary outcome was 48-month post-injury RTW.

 

Results

From 1st January  to 31st September 2010, 400 patients recruited to the study (mean age 53.3 years; range 18-106; 69.5% male), of which 197 (49.3%) met the inclusion criteria (mean age 42.9 years; range 18-87; 78.7% male).  Of these patients, 31 (21.1%[C1] ) had RTW at 1-month, 39 (37.5%) at 12-months and 46 (52.3%) at 48 months. Return to work within four years was significantly associated with shorter total length of hospital stay, head injury AIS <3, abdominal injury AIS <3, and multiple injury sites, and higher PCS at one month post injury. After multivariate analysis, one-month PCS on SF36 testing (OR 1.068, P=0.039) significantly predicted 48 month RTW.

 

Conclusion

The 48-month post-trauma RTW rate in patients with ISS≥9 was 52.3%. One month PCS post injury may be used to predict 48 month RTW.

 

 

Acknowledgement

This study was supported by Health and Health Services Research Grant 07080261 and Health and Medical Research Fund Grant 10110251.

Colin A GRAHAM, Kevin Kc HUNG (Hong Kong, CHINA), Janice Hh YEUNG, Wai S POON, Hiu F HO, Chak W KAM, Timothy H RAINER
11:30 - 11:40 #4587 - OP115 Cerebral oximetry monitoring in assessing Cerebral Physiology changes in non-intubated pediatric isolated TBI ED patients receiving 3% HTS.
OP115 Cerebral oximetry monitoring in assessing Cerebral Physiology changes in non-intubated pediatric isolated TBI ED patients receiving 3% HTS.

In altered traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients, the current ED monitoring skills for detecting and assessing increased ICP and therapeutic response is inconsistent due healthcare provider's clinical assessment variability. Cerebral oximetry can detect acute changes in cerebral physiology, pathology, and ICP changes. . Pediatric Cerebral rcSO2 normal ranges 60- 80%. rcSO2 < 60%, or rcSO2 >80%, and interhemispheric side differences > 10% reflect abnormal cerebral physiology & increase ICP. 3% HTS therapy has been used in ED non-intubated TBI showing clinical benefit but no objective cerebral physiology effect change. Assessing HTS effect on intubated TBI cerebral physiology changes is done only invasively in ICU.ref 1 Assessing 3% HTS effects in altered non-intubated ED-TBI patients with cerebral pathology (epidural or subdural) or without by cerebral oximetry has never been investigated.

Objective: Assessing in altered non-intubated isolated TBI patients who received therapeutic doses of 3% HTS (5 ml/kg) with simultaneously cerebral oximetry readings ( rcSO2) and GCS changes compared to their pre & post 3% HTS infusion times.

Methods: PED observational convenience study of altered (GCS < 14) non-intubated TBI patients with CT-scan and clinical decisions for 3% HTS infusion had simultaneous cerebral oximetry monitoring during their 3%HTS infusion. Patient's cerebral oximetry & GCS changes were compared at 10 min before, and 10, 20 min after 3%HTS infusions. Patients were subgroup and analyzed by their rSO2 initial readings:
1. Abnormal Cerebral Pathology: rSO2 < 60 or >80,
2. Normal Cerebral Pathology: rSO2 60-80.

Results: Age 3.96(2.3, 8.4), All TBI groups GCS changes before & after 3%HTS were 10( 9,10) & 13( 13,14) , GCS difference 4(3,4) p < 0.0001. 3%HTS infusion time from start to the first 15% change in Left & Right rSO2 was 1.5 minutes( 1.1, 2.0). Table 1

Conclusions: This preliminary study has demonstrated the ability of Cerebral Oximetry to detect the real-time effects of 3%HTS on the altered non-inutbated TBI patient's cerebral physiology in an ED. In isolated non-intubated altered TBI PED patients with or without abnormal cerebral pathology (epidural and or subdural) the 3%HTS effect on their cerebral physiology as defined by cerebral oximetry changes were highly significant and correlated with GCS changes. Cerebral Oximetry monitoring has shown its capabilities as an objective neuro-assessment and monitoring tool in altered non-intubated TBI patient's cerebral physiology and response to therapy. This study along with our prior studies further substantiate cerebral oximetry’s utilization in euro-emergencies and neuroresuscitation and a standard neuro-monitoring tool in the ED.


1.Lumba-Brown.: 3%HTS as a therapy for pediatric concussive pain: a randomized controlled trial of symptom treatment in the emergency department Pediatr Emerg Care. 2014 Mar;30(3):139-45

Thomas ABRAMO MD (Little Rock, USA), Shane MCKINNEY MD, Gregory ALBERT MD, Todd MAXSON, Jon ORSBORN MD, Nicholas PORTER MD, Elizabeth STORM MD, Zhuopei HU MS
11:40 - 11:50 #8197 - OP116 Extraordinary mobilizations of antidotes from the National Stockpile to the hospital’s emergency departments: an example of versatility and integration of national functions and systems.
OP116 Extraordinary mobilizations of antidotes from the National Stockpile to the hospital’s emergency departments: an example of versatility and integration of national functions and systems.

Objective: Since 2005, the Italian State has established an extraordinary endowment of antidotes for terrorists chemical and radio-nuclear events (Scorta Nazionale Antidoti-SNA). Charged by the Ministry of Health, the Pavia Poison Control Centre (PPCC) is the clinical unit responsible for (i) the diagnostic-therapeutic specialist consultation for non-conventional attacks, (ii) the SNA operational management (e.g. upgrade, distribution planning), and (iii) the continuous training of the Italian NHS. SNA is organized on national scale (regional and national stockpiles, located in hospitals and in State’s deposits, respectively), and is an intangible stockpile whose integrity is essential to fulfill its functions. However, when an absolute shortage of an antidote occurs in the NHS hospitals and the antidotal treatment of intoxicated patients is necessary, a quote of the SNA stockpile can be extraordinarily mobilized. Operational procedure need a clinical evaluation by the PPCC first, and then an on-time authorization by the Ministry of Health. Rapid replacement of the mobilized amounts by the requiring hospital is a procedural obligation. To evaluate the SNA’s extraordinary mobilizations (SNA-EM) in a seven-year period. Methods: We investigated all SNA-EM authorized/made in the period 2008-2014. For each mobilization (i) the cause of the extraordinary request (clinical indications, antidotes availability/shortage in neighboring hospital and Poison Centers), (ii) the time required for the antidotes arrival to the requiring hospital and (iii) the SNA stockpile involved were assessed. Results: Exceptional mobilizations from the SNA to the NHS hospitals were performed 25 times (for 28 patients), always linked to single/multiple poisoning from conventional causes/events. The mobilized antidotes were pralidoxime (n=17), DMSA (n=3), DMPS (n=2), hydroxocobalamin (n=1), methylene-blue (n=1) and Prussian-blue (n=1). In 21 cases, SNA-EM occurred to hospitals located in the same region of the SNA deposit and in 4 toward different regions. In some cases, the mobilized antidotes (DMPS, prussian-blue and DMSA) are rarely used and difficult to find in the NHS hospitals. Conclusions: SNA is an essential facility in each country in order to have the necessary antidotes in case of exceptional events. The Italian current organization of SNA, considered highly important in EU, combine clinical toxicological expertise and antidotes supply in order to obtain diagnostic and therapeutic appropriateness. Nevertheless, this organization has proven useful and able to overcome the hospital shortcomings of normal/rare antidotes in cases where toxic agents are unusual or the need for antidotes exceed the normal hospital availability. Acknowledgements: Support of Ministry of Health (4393/2013-CCM).

Eleonora BUSCAGLIA, Valeria Margherita PETROLINI, Virgilio COSTANZO, Loredana VELLUCCI, Giulia SCARAVAGGI, Marta CREVANI, Sarah VECCHIO, Davide LONATI, Carlo Alessandro LOCATELLI (Travacò Siccomario, ITALY)
11:50 - 12:00 #8198 - OP117 Antivenom treatment in viper envenomation in Italy: a 3 years experience.
OP117 Antivenom treatment in viper envenomation in Italy: a 3 years experience.

Objective: EU marketed viper antivenoms differ for pharmaceutical characteristics (e.g. Fab/F(ab’)2, equine/ovine, viper spp. neutralizing activity), dosage and registered route of administration. A different availability in Italian hospitals offers the opportunity to preliminary evaluate the relative frequency of use and the clinical response to treatment with 4 different antivenom.

Methods: All viper bitten patients treated with antivenom referred to Pavia Poison Control Centre from 2013-Oct2015 were retrospectively assessed for sex, age, site of bite, time elapsed between bite and ED admission/antivenom administration, type of antivenom and number of vials, GSS and clinical response (improvement/worsening during 6 hours), need of adjunctive doses, adverse effects. Clinical manifestations were evaluated according to the Grading-Severity-Score (GSS).

Results: 50 patients (age 44,3±27,2 y-o; male 70%) were included; 13 were paediatric (1-13 y-o). Considering geographical distribution, vipera aspis spp. was mainly involved. Upper and lower limbs were involved in 88% and 12% of cases, respectively. Average time between bite and ED-admission was 4 hours (15min-23hours), and 9 hours (40min-26hours) between bite and antivenom administration, that occurred in patients with GSS 2 or 3 (76% and 24%, respectively). The 4 antivenom were administered intravenously: Viper Venom Antiserum-European® (VVAE) (30/50;60%) [7=1 vial, 23=2 vials], Viper Venom Antitoxin® (VVA) (16/50;32%) [11=1 vial, 5=2 vials], ViperaTab® (3/50;6%) [2 vials] and Viekvin® (1/50;2%) [1 vial]. Clinical improvement was observed after 1 and 2 vials of VVAE administration in 86% and 96% of cases, respectively, and after 1 and 2 vials of VVA in 55% and 80% of cases. ViperaTab treated patients (n=3) improved in 66.6%; 1 patient treated with Viekvin (9 years-old) promptly ameliorated. Adjunctive doses of antivenom were needed in 6 patients (12%) aging (except one, 49 y-o) from 2 to 6 years that received only 1 vial of VVAE (1/6;16%) and VVA (5/6;83%). Acute adverse reactions occurred after VVAE (2 cases; angioedema, pruritus) and VVA administration (1 case; mild hypotension). Serum sickness (3 weeks later) occurred in 1 case (VVA). Statistical evaluation requires a greater number of cases.

Conclusions: A different availability of 4 antivenoms is observed in Italian hospitals, with a prevalence of those that declare neutralizing activity against vipera aspis spp. Intravenous administration is usually safe, even if adverse reactions are observed. An initial dose of 2 vials of all formulation is suitable to reduce the probability of worsening and the need of adjunctive doses, especially in paediatric patients.

Valeria Margherita PETROLINI, Davide LONATI, Azzurra SCHICCHI, Marta CREVANI, Mara GARBI, Giulia SCARAVAGGI, Eleonora BUSCAGLIA, Francesca CHIARA, Sarah VECCHIO, Carlo Alessandro LOCATELLI (Travacò Siccomario, ITALY)
 
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12:00-12:30
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HT1
Hot Topic Conference

Hot Topic Conference

Moderator: Barbara HOGAN (Past President of the European Society for Emergency Medicine, EuSEM) (HAMBURG, GERMANY)
12:00 - 12:30 Simultaneous Terrorist attacks across Europe: are we prepared? Pierre CARLI (Chef de Service) (Paris, FRANCE)
             
 
12:30
12:30-13:30
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CC
Congress Closing Ceremony

Congress Closing Ceremony

Moderator: Wilhelm BEHRINGER (Director) (Jena, GERMANY)
12:30 - 12:50 Austrian/German/Swiss Host Representative.
12:50 - 13:10 Immediate Past President EUSEM. Barbara HOGAN (Past President of the European Society for Emergency Medicine, EuSEM) (HAMBURG, GERMANY)
13:10 - 13:20 EUSEM President. Roberta PETRINO (Head of department) (Italie, ITALY)
13:20 - 13:30 Introduction of EuSEM congress 2017 in Athens. Helen ASKITOPOULOU (Chair Ethics Committee) (Heraklion, GREECE)
             

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2016: Vienna, Austria

Vienna, Austria from 1-5 october 2016

hofburg

EuSEM 2016 gathered around 2200 participants and 180 exhibitors from 79 countries all over the World !
Along with an international and multidisciplinary high quality conference, EuSEM hosted Europe's largest exhibition dedicated to Emergency Medicine.
Vienna 2016 was for sure a milestone in the series of EuSEM Conferences. The location might have added to the succes.

As an imperial conference and event centre, there is nothing like the Hofburg Vienna anywhere else in the world. For over 700 years, both past and modern history have been written within its walls. Halls equipped for multifunctional purposes, architecture that ranges between traditional and contemporary, state-of-the-art events technology as well as the customer-oriented, personalised service turn this congress centre into a centre of excellence.

la hofburg c3a0 vienne en autriche1Its location at the heart of Vienna is another unique selling proposition. Cultural institutions – like museums, the Staatsoper and theatres – as well as certain universities are all conveniently situated within a few minutes’ walking distance. 

The Hofburg Vienna holds 17,000 m² of space in 35 rooms for events ranging from 50 to 4,900 persons.

It is situated on one of the most attractive boulevards that the world has ever seen.

The Hofburg lies at the heart of Vienna‘s Old Town, the best way to reach it is by public transit. Two underground stations as well as bus and tram stops are all within walking distance.  Motorists can park their vehicles at nearby car parks (for a fee).

Address

Hofburg Vienna
Heldenplatz, P.O. Box 113
1014 Wien, Österreich
T: +43 1 5873666
F: +43 1 5356426

www.hofburg.com

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Pre-course: Survival Course Critical Emergency Skills for Young Doctors

Saturday 1 October: 08:00 - 17:00 

Course Director

  • Martin Fandler (Germany)

Faculty

  • Lars Lomberg (Germany)
  • Thomas Plappert (Germany)
  • Kostja Steiner (Austria)
  • Peter Zechner (Austria)

Maximum number of delegates that can be accommodated:  20

Objective of the course 

The "Survival Course Critical Emergency Skills for Young Doctors" (SUCCESS) is based on a very simple concept - hands-on-training of critical skills needed for prehospital emergency doctors, in the emergency department, on ICU or even on the ward. The central theme of this full-day-course are the „4 Hs and 4Ts“ in Advanced Life Support. In short, focused and interactive presentations the main topics are covered, leaving much room for the practical hands-on-sessions, which include iv-access in difficult circumstances, intraosseous access, emergency ultrasound, finger thoracostomy, airway management with different methods including video laryngoscopy and alternative airways as well as the surgical airway. Theoretical sessions also include hypovolemia and shock including push-dose-pressor-use, hypoxia and airway, hyperkalemia, emergency toxicology, pulmonary embolism, pneumothorax and pericardial tamponade, ultrasound (focussing on eFAST).

This course has been „tested“ to great positive feedback at the German Emergency Medicine conference (DGINA) in Nuremberg 2014. 

Content of the course

To survive in the jungle of Emergency Medicine you need a strong will and clear concepts. All that is best learnt with your own hands - that’s why our focus in this course is hands-on learning. We show your strategies what to do with difficult intravenous access, unstable blood pressure and shock, emergency ultrasound, airway management with different devices and other life-saving techniques. 

Target group

Young doctors and experienced medical students, supported by and cooperating with the EuSEM Young Emergency Medical Doctors (EuSEM YEMD). 

Docents team

We are a mixed, experienced team of instructors with enthusiasm to teach and train. Our backgrounds include prehospital emergency medicine, anesthesiology, internal medicine and intensive care.  We are united in our passion for emergency medicine. 

Schedule

08:00 Introduction  
08:30 Interactive Theory + Discussion („Hypovolemia/Shock“)
  • Alternative i.v. access (i.o., v.jug.ext., ultrasoundguided venous puncture)
  • Emergency ultrasound (eFAST + v.cava)

Interactive Theory + Discussion („Hypoxia“)

  • Difficult airway, surgical airway, RSI
 
10:30 Coffee break  
11:00 Hands-On
  • Ultrasound (eFAST + v.cava) 
  • i.v. and alternative access incl. (i.o., v.jug.ext., ultrasoundguided venous puncture)

Hands-On

  • Video laryngoscopy + supraglottic devices
  • Surgical airway
 
13:00 Lunch  
14:15 Short Warm-Up"
  • Interactive Theory + Discussion („Hyperkalemia, Toxins, Thromboembolism“)
 
14:30 Interactive Theory + Discussion („Tension“)
  • Ultrasound pneumothorax
  • Pneumothorax treatment: chest drain, puncture

Interactive Theory + Discussion („Shock“)

  • Catecholamines (push dose pressors) + volume
 
15:30 Hands-On
  • Thorax ultrasound

Hands-On

  • Chest drain + chest punction (+ pericardial drainage)
 
16:30 Final thoughs
 

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Pre-course: Non-invasive Ventilation

Saturday 1 October: 9:00 - 17:00

 

Course Director

  • Roberto Cosentini (Italy)

Faculty

  • Abdo Khoury (France)
  • Rodolpho Ferrari (Italy)
  • Roberta Marino (Italy)
  • Patrick Plaisance (France)

The dyspnoea epidemic

Acute dyspnoea is one of the most common emergencies in the ED, accounting for 3-5% of all admissions. The vast majority of cases are represented by acute heart failure, pneumonia and COPD exacerbation.

Why Non Invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation is relevant to ED doctors

One of the major advances in acute respiratory failure treatment is Non Invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation (NPPV). The application of non-invasive positive pressure has been proved superior to standard treatment and should belong to the therapeutic armamentarium of the emergency physician. According to the literature, the application of NPPV in the treatment of acute cariogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE) allows to avoid 1 endotracheal intubation (ETI) out of 8 patients (NNT = 8) and 1 death every 13 treated patients (NNT = 13) in comparison to standard treatment. For patients with severe COPD exacerbation, NIV has an even better NNT of 5 for ETI, and 8 for mortality. Just to have an idea, aspirin and lytics in AMI have a NNT for mortality of 42 and 43, respectively.

NIV has also proved useful for pneumonia in the immunompromised population and recent data suggest could be useful also as an early approach in pneumonia in the immunocompetent patients.

How the course runs

This is highly interactive course with a predominant part of training sessions on ventilatory stations. The course will bring you cutting edge information on Non Invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation use and caveats, with a focus on most common cases. For each indication, a hands on session will be run on a different ventilator and CPAP device stations with cognitive simulation of clinical scenarios.

At the end of the course, the participant will be able to:

  • evaluate the correct indications for NPPV
  • set both the ventilators and CPAP devices
  • critically analyze ventilator/patient interactions
  • evaluate intolerance and devise corrections

Schedule

09:00 How I treat hypoxemic patients:
 
Acute Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema (ACPE)Roberto Consentini
■ clinical cases